August 27, 2022

Scottish Towns-Cities-(Aberdeen)

Aberdeen (/ˌæbərˈdiːn/ (listen); Scots: Aiberdeen, listen (help·info); Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain [opəɾ ˈɛ.ɛɲ]; Latin: Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is Scotland’s third most populous city, one of Scotland’s 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom’s 39th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and 227,560 for the local council area.

During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen’s buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content.  Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, Aberdeen has been known as the off-shore oil capital of Europe. The area around Aberdeen has been settled for at least 8,000 years,  when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don. The city has a long, sandy coastline and a marine climate, the latter resulting in chilly summers and mild winters.

Aberdeen Harbour, Scotland – location of bp and Aberdeen City Council joint hydrogen hub venture

Aberdeen received Royal Burgh status from David I of Scotland (1124–1153),  transforming the city economically. The city has two universities, the University of Aberdeen, founded in 1495, and Robert Gordon University, which was awarded university status in 1992, making Aberdeen the educational centre of north-east Scotland. The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making, shipbuilding, and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry and Aberdeen’s seaport. Aberdeen Heliport is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland.

Aberdeen used to host the Aberdeen International Youth Festival, a major international event which attracted up to 1000 of the most talented young performing arts companies but the council ended funding in 2017 and the festival was wound up in 2018. In 2015, Mercer named Aberdeen the 57th most liveable city in the world, as well as the fourth most liveable city in Britain.  In 2012, HSBC named Aberdeen as a leading business hub and one of eight ‘super cities’ spearheading the UK’s economy, marking it as the only city in Scotland to receive this accolade.  In 2018, Aberdeen was found to be the best city in the UK to start a business in a study released by card payment firm Paymentsense.

The Town House, Old Aberdeen. Once a separate burgh, Old Aberdeen was incorporated into the city in 1891

The Aberdeen area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years. The city began as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen at the mouth of the river Don; and New Aberdeen, a fishing and trading settlement, where the Denburn waterway entered the river Dee estuary.[14] The earliest charter was granted by William the Lion in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I.

In 1319, the Great Charter of Robert the Bruce transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stockett, whose income formed the basis for the city’s Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians.

During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Aberdeen was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308, followed executing the English garrison. The city was burned by Edward III of England in 1336, but was rebuilt and extended. The city was strongly fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770.

The Powis gate, Old Aberdeen, built in 1834

During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644 to 1647, the city was plundered by both sides. In 1644, it was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen and two years later it was stormed by a Royalist force under the command of the Marquis of Huntly. In 1647 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed a quarter of the population. In the 18th century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary at Woolmanhill in 1742 and the Lunatic Asylum in 1779. The council began major road improvements at the end of the 18th century with the main thoroughfares of George Street, King Street and Union Street all completed at the beginning of the 19th century.

Historical photos of Aberdeen c. 1900

The expensive infrastructure works led to the city becoming bankrupt in 1817 during the Post-Napoleonic depression, an economic downturn immediately after the Napoleonic Wars; but the city’s prosperity later recovered. The increasing economic importance of Aberdeen and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the construction of the present harbour including Victoria Dock and the South Breakwater, and the extension of the North Pier. Gas street lighting arrived in 1824 and an enhanced water supply appeared in 1830 when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865. The city was incorporated in 1891. Although Old Aberdeen has a separate history and still holds its ancient charter, it is no longer officially independent. It is an integral part of the city, as is Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of the River Dee.

Over the course of the Second World War Aberdeen was attacked 32 times by the German Luftwaffe. One of the most devastating attacks was on Wednesday 21 April 1943 when 29 Luftwaffe Dornier 217s flying from Stavanger, Norway attacked the city between the hours of 22:17 and 23:04. A total of 98 civilians and 27 servicemen were killed, along with 9,668 houses damaged, after a mixture of 127 Incendiary, High Explosive and Cluster bombs were dropped on the city in one night. It was also the last German raid on a Scottish city during the war.


Main article: Etymology of Aberdeen

Aberdeen was in Pictish territory and became Gaelic-speaking at some time in the medieval period. Old Aberdeen is the approximate location of Aberdon, the first settlement of Aberdeen; this literally means “the mouth of the Don”. The Celtic word aber means “river mouth”, as in modern Welsh (Aberystwyth, Aberdare, Aberbeeg etc.). The Scottish Gaelic name is Obar Dheathain (variation: Obairreadhain; *obar presumably being a loan from the earlier Pictish; the Gaelic term is inbhir), and in Latin, the Romans referred to the river as Devana. Mediaeval (or Ecclesiastical) Latin has it as Aberdonia.


Aberdeen is locally governed by Aberdeen City Council, which comprises forty-five councillors who represent the city’s wards and is headed by the Lord Provost. The current Lord Provost is Barney Crockett.  From May 2003 until May 2007 the council was run by a Liberal Democrat and Conservative Party coalition. Following the May 2007 local elections, the Liberal Democrats formed a new coalition with the Scottish National Party.  After a later SNP by-election gain from the Conservatives, this coalition held 28 of the 43 seats. Following the election of 4 May 2017, the council was controlled by a coalition of Scottish Labour, Scottish Conservatives and independent councillors; the Labour councillors were subsequently suspended by Scottish Labour Party leader, Kezia Dugdale.

Aberdeen is represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom by three constituencies: Aberdeen North and Aberdeen South which are wholly within the Aberdeen City council area, and Gordon, which includes a large area of the Aberdeenshire Council area.

In the Scottish Parliament, the city is represented by three constituencies with different boundaries: Aberdeen Central and Aberdeen Donside are wholly within the Aberdeen City council area. Aberdeen South and North Kincardine includes the North Kincardine ward of Aberdeenshire Council. A further seven MSPs are elected as part of the North East Scotland electoral region. In the European Parliament the city was represented by six MEPs as part of the all-inclusive Scotland constituency.

The arms and banner of the city show three silver towers on red. This motif dates from at least the time of Robert the Bruce and represents the buildings that stood on the three hills of medieval Aberdeen: Aberdeen Castle on Castle Hill (today’s Castlegate); the city gate on Port Hill; and a church on St Catherine’s Hill (now levelled).

Bon Accord is the motto of the city and is French for “Good Agreement”. Legend tells that its use dates from a password used by Robert the Bruce during the 14th-century Wars of Scottish Independence, when he and his men laid siege to the English-held Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308. It is still widely present in the city, throughout street names, business names and the city’s Bon Accord shopping mall.

The shield in the coat of arms is supported by two leopards. A local magazine is called the “Leopard” and, when Union Bridge was widened in the 20th century, small statues of the creature in a sitting position were cast and placed on top of the railing posts (known locally as Kelly’s Cats). The city’s toast is “Happy to meet, sorry to part, happy to meet again”; this has been commonly misinterpreted as the translation of Bon Accord.


Being sited between two river mouths, the city has little natural exposure of bedrock. This leaves local geologists in a slight quandary: despite the high concentration of geoscientists in the area (courtesy of the oil industry), there is only a vague understanding of what underlies the city. To the south side of the city, coastal cliffs expose high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Grampian Group; to the southwest and west are extensive granites intruded into similar high-grade schists; to the north, the metamorphics are intruded by gabbroic complexes instead.

The small amount of geophysics done, and occasional building-related exposures, combined with small exposures in the banks of the River Don, suggest that it is actually sited on an inlier of Devonian “Old Red” sandstones and silts. The outskirts of the city spread beyond the (inferred) limits of the outlier onto the surrounding metamorphic/ igneous complexes formed during the Dalradian period (approximately 480–600 million years ago) with sporadic areas of igneous Diorite granites to be found, such as that at the Rubislaw quarry which was used to build much of the Victorian parts of the city.

On the coast, Aberdeen has a long sand beach between the two rivers, the Dee and the Don, which turns into high sand dunes north of the Don stretching as far as Fraserburgh; to the south of the Dee are steep rocky cliff faces with only minor pebble and shingle beaches in deep inlets. A number of granite outcrops along the south coast have been quarried in the past, making for spectacular scenery and good rock-climbing.

The city extends to 185.7 km2 (71.7 sq mi), and includes the former burghs of Old Aberdeen, New Aberdeen, Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of River Dee. In 2017 this gave the city a population density of 1,225. The city is built on many hills, with the original beginnings of the city growing from Castle Hill, St. Catherine’s Hill and Windmill Hill.


Aberdeen features an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). Aberdeen has far milder winter temperatures than one might expect for its northern location, although statistically, it is the coldest city in the UK. During the winter, especially throughout December, the length of the day is very short, averaging 6 hours and 41 minutes between sunrise and sunset at the winter solstice.  As winter progresses, the length of the day grows fairly quickly, to 8 hours and 20 minutes by the end of January. Around summer solstice, the days will be around 18 hours long, having 17 hours and 55 minutes between sunrise and sunset. During this time of the year, marginal nautical twilight lasts the entire night. Temperatures at this time of year will be typically hovering around 17.0 °C (62.6 °F) during the day in most of the urban area, though nearer 16.0 °C (60.8 °F) directly on the coast, and around 18.0 to 19.0 °C (64.4 to 66.2 °F) in the westernmost suburbs,  illustrating the cooling effect of the North Sea during summer. In addition, from June onward skies are more overcast than in April/May, as reflected in a lower percentage of possible sunshine (the percentage of daylight hours that are sunny). These factors render summer to be temperate and cool for the latitude, both by European standards and also compared to far inland climates on other continents, with those patterns being reversed during the mild and moderated winters.

Two weather stations collect climate data for the area, Aberdeen/Dyce Airport, and Craibstone. Both are about 4

12 miles (7 km) to the north-west of the city centre, and given that they are in close proximity to each other, exhibit very similar climatic regimes. Dyce tends to have marginally warmer daytime temperatures year-round owing to its slightly lower elevation, though it is more susceptible to harsh frosts. The coldest temperature to occur in recent years was −16.8 °C (1.8 °F) during December 2010,  while the following winter, Dyce set a new February high-temperature station record on 28 February 2012 of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F).,  and a new March high-temperature record of 21.6 °C (70.9 °F) on 25 March 2012.

The average temperature of the sea ranges from 6.6 °C (43.9 °F) in March to 13.8 °C (56.8 °F) in August.

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Kings-Queens of Scotland Part 2.


This page covers all the kings and queens of Scotland from Robert the Bruce in 1306 up to the Union of the Parliaments in 1707 in the reign of Queen Anne. The dates shown beside each entry relates to the years in which they reigned. Part 1 of this feature describes the monarchs from the earliest times up to King John. There is also a further page showing a chronology of all the kings and queens of Scotland, England, United Kingdom and France. royalty kings and queens

Robert the Bruce’s grandfather, Robert Bruce of Annandale, who had estates in Huntingdon as well as Scotland, was one of the claimants to the throne of Scotland on the death of Queen Margaret, Maid of Norway, in 1290 (he was a descendant of King Alexander II). On the death of his father, the Earl of Carrick, Robert was reputedly the richest man in England. In 1306, after a quarrel and murdering John Comyn, Robert declared himself King of Scotland. He was crowned at Scone in March 1306 and then began a geurilla war against the English King Edward I. Initially he was not successful but gradually, with increasing support, he captured a number of castles – chivalrously allowing the defenders to return to England. Bruce heavily defeated the English army at Bannockburn in 1314 and defeated King Edward II’s invasion in 1322 by a “scorched earth” policy. King Edward III of England eventually agreed to the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1328 which recognised Scotland’s independence, ending the 30 years of the Wars of Independence. King Robert was gravely ill by this time and died at Cardross on 7 July 1329. His body was buried at Dunfermline Abbey but, at his request, his heart was taken on a Crusade against the Moors in Spain by James Douglas. It is now buried in Melrose Abbey. David II (1329-1371) 

king robert-i-king-

David was Robert the Bruce’s only surviving son, born when Bruce was aged 50, and was only five years old when his father died. In 1328 he had married Joan, sister of Edward III of England at the age four (she was seven). He was driven into exile in France by Edward Balliol (son of King John Balliol) who was supported by those who had been disinherited by Robert the Bruce. However, Bruce’s grandson, Robert Stewart, upheld his cause in Scotland. David returned from France in 1341, deposing Edward Balliol. In response to an appeal for help from France, King David invaded England in 1346 but was captured at the Battle of Neville’s Cross, remaining a prisoner at the English court until the Treaty of Berwick in 1357. David ruled with authority and included burgesses, as well as nobles in the Parliament and trade, increased during his rule. He married a second time, to Margaret Drummond but died without legitimate issue. He was succeeded by his nephew, Robert II the Steward. Edward Balliol (1332-1341 but with interruptions) 
Son of King John Balliol, the puppet of Edward I of England, Edward Balliol was acknowledged by some Scots as the heir to the throne. Taking advantage of King David II’s minority and the death of the Regent Randolph, Earl of Moray (and tacitly supported by Edward III of England), Edward Balliol sailed into Kinghorn in Fife in 1332 and defeated a Scots army, led by the inexperienced Earl of Mar at the Battle of Dupplin. He was crowned at Scone six weeks later but was deposed by the end of the year. He returned in 1333, was deposed in 1334, restored in 1335 and was finally deposed in 1341 (by which time King David II was 17 years old). Robert II (1371-1390) 

Son of Marjorie Bruce (daughter of King Robert the Bruce) and Walter, the High Steward of Scotland, Robert shared in the Regency during King David’s minority spent in France (1333-1341) and again from 1346 to 1357 after David’s capture at the Battle of Neville’s Cross. He came to the throne at the age of 55 after the death of the childless King David II, thus starting the House of Stewart. King Robert II was in a different mould from King David II and is known to have fathered at least 21 children, 14 legitimately with his two wives. Not much is known about his reign but he appears to have had numerous conflicts with his nobles. Elderly and infirm, he allowed power to pass to his eldest son, Robert III in 1384, six years before his death. Robert III (1390-1406) 
Son of Robert II, King Robert III was considered illegitimate by the Church due to the too-close consanguinity of his parents (though a Papal dispensation had been granted). Robert III was described as ‘feeble’, ‘timid’ and ‘unfit to rule’. He had been crippled as a result of a riding accident two years before he came to the throne. He had been baptised as ‘John’ but, in view of the potential confusion with John Balliol and the untimely fates of kings of that name in England and France, he was crowned as Robert III. He had a reputation for kindliness and justice. But his personal qualities and failing health undermined his authority and power was transferred to his brother the Duke of Albany and his eldest son, the Duke of Rothesay. However, Albany imprisoned the Duke of Rothesay in Falkland Palace where he died of starvation in 1402. The King then sent his younger son, James, to France in 1406 but after he had been captured by pirates off Flamborough Head, he became a prisoner of the English King Henry IV. King Robert III died some months later. James I (1406-1437) 


During James’ captivity in England (see paragraph above), the Duke of Albany (Robert III’s brother) and then (in 1420) the Duke’s son, Murdoch, acted as Regents. James, 12-years-old when captured, was held in the Tower of London but was given a good education. James was eventually released under the Treaty of London for a sizeable ransom and returned to be crowned King James I at Scone in 1424. James set about establishing his rule (the Regent Murdoch and his two sons were beheaded and the Lord of the Isles was imprisoned for a spell). He renewed the “Auld Alliance” with France but his attempts to dominate the nobility resulted in his murder in Perth in 1437. James II (1437-1460) 
Born in 1430, James II was only seven when he succeeded to the throne. Archibald 5th Earl Douglas became Regent until his death in 1439. The 6th Earl Douglas was dragged to his death in the presence of James during the “Black Dinner” in Edinburgh Castle in 1440. In 1452, James attempted to establish his authority and while trying to persuade the 8th Earl of Douglas to give up support for the Lord of the Isles, James lost his temper and stabbed him – his bodyguard then finished the job. During the ensuing conflict between the Douglas and Stewart supporters, the royal cannons demolished the Douglas strongholds. Later, in 1455, Parliament legislated for the Douglas fortresses to become royal possessions. The Lord of the Isles also succumbed. But in 1460, while inspecting a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle in 1460, the cannon exploded, killing the king. James III (1460-1488) 

The oldest surviving son of King James II, James III was nine years old when he was crowned at Kelso Abbey on 10 August 1460. A governing council, led by the King’s mother, took control and, during a civil war in England, managed to gain control of Berwick on Tweed. James married Margaret the daughter of the King of Denmark in 1469 and began to assert his own power. But in 1482, an English army, supporting the cause of James’ brother, Alexander, Duke of Albany, invaded. At this point, a group of Scottish nobles murdered some of the King’s favourites and imprisoned the King in Edinburgh castle as the English army advanced to Edinburgh. James survived but following further conflicts with some of the Border families, they encouraged his 15-year-old son to lead a rebellion. The opposing armies, both flying the lion rampant, met at the Battle of Sauchieburn, near Bannockburn on 11 June 1488. King James III was wounded in the battle and was subsequently killed by a man pretending to be a priest. James IV (1488-1513) 
As penance for causing the death of his father, James IV wore an iron chain around his waist for the rest of his life. He married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII in 1503. It was as a consequence of this marriage that the “Treaty of Everlasting Peace” was signed between Scotland and England at the time of the marriage- it lasted ten years. James had renewed the “Auld Alliance” with France when King Henry VIII of England had invaded France. James did not need to take action but nevertheless advanced into England. After some minor successes, he met an English army at Flodden on September 9 1513.

The battle was the heaviest defeat ever experienced by a Scottish army, with the slaughter of the King and the flower of Scottish nobility – at least ten earls, countless lords and an estimated death toll of 10,000 Scots from the Highlands and the Lowlands. James V (1513-1542) 
James V was 17 months old when he succeeded his father and various regents and nobles governed Scotland until he was 15 years. He was keen to accumulate wealth and married twice, obtaining handsome dowries on each occasion. This was the age when the Reformation was sweeping Europe (and Henry VIII had created the separate Church of England) but James was committed to the Catholic Church. James attempted to subdue the Border families and the Highland clans and while he was successful to a degree, they were conspicuous by their lack of support at the time of war. King Henry VIII invaded and the Scottish army was defeated at the Battle of Solway Moss on November 24 1542, with many of the Borderers surrendering without a fight and even delivering his nobles to the English. James returned to Linlithgow and Falkland Palaces, depressed and defeated. He died on 14 December 1542 at the age of 30, six days after his daughter, Mary, was born. Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1567) 

Under the guardianship of the 2nd Earl of Arran, the infant Mary was betrothed to the son of King Henry VIII of England. However, a pro-Fench and Catholic faction led by Mary’s mother, Mary of Guise, gained the ascendancy and the agreement was overturned. King Henry VIII sent an army into Scotland to enforce the marriage in what became known as the “Rough Wooing”. Mary was sent for safety to France where she married the Dauphin, the heir to the French crown, in 1558. She became Queen of France and Scotland in 1559 but her husband, King Francis II, died in 1560. Mary returned to Scotland despite the Protestant faith gaining the ascendancy. During Mary’s reign, she was attacked for her Catholic beliefs by the religious reformer John Knox. Mary married her first cousin, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, after a whirlwind courtship, in July 1565. The future James VI was born in June 1566. Darnley was murdered in 1567 and the Earl of Bothwell was accused but acquitted of the crime. A few months later Mary and Bothwell were married. Scandalised nobles imprisoned Mary in Loch Leven Castle and she was forced to abdicate in favour of her son, James VI. Mary escaped from Loch Leven in May 1568 but was defeated at the Battle of Langside on 13 May. She escaped to England but was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth I of England. A focus for Catholic plots, she was beheaded at Fotheringay Castle on 18 February 1587. James VI (1569-1625) 

Son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, James VI was proclaimed king at the age of one, following the enforced abdication of his mother. Like his grandfather, James V, the young King became hostage to various factions and saw a number of regents being murdered. He escaped at the age of 14 and asserted his own authority (including the execution of his recent captors, the Ruthvens). James was not in favour of the Protestants (who believed the King was “God’s sillie vassal”), preferring the Catholic faith. His ambition to become King of England as well as Scotland meant that he did nothing to mitigate the fate of his mother and in 1603, with the death of Queen Elizabeth I of England, the “Union of the Crowns” took place. He immediately travelled to London (returning to Scotland only once). He established Protestant Scots and English in Ulster (thus creating the origins of the Irish sectarian conflicts) and colonies in Virginia in North America and commissioned an authorised version of the Bible. Charles I (1625-1649) 
When Charles was born in 1600 no-one knew that he would be the last king born in Scotland. He was a frail, sickly child, unlike his eler brother Henry, Prince of Wales. But Henry died in 1616 and Charles I was crowned in 1625. Charles believed in the “Divine Right of Kings” which led him into conflict with Parliament both in Westminster and Scotland. In Scotland, the meddling of the king in church affairs led to the signing of the Covenant in 1638 and a call to arms. The English Parliament and the Scottish Presbyterians were both at loggerheads with the king and civil war broke out. The Marquis of Montrose carried out a brilliant campaign on behalf of the King in Scotland but with his cause lost in England, Charles surrendered to the Scottish army in 1646. He was subsequently handed over to the English Parliament and in 1649 he was executed. Charles II (1649-1685) 

Charles (and his younger brother James) were present at the Battle of Edge hill in 1645 when their father was defeated by Cromwell and the Roundheads. After exile in France, Charles returned to Scotland in 1650. Since Charles II was crowned at Scone on 1 January 1651, ten years before he was crowned in London, there was hardly an interregnum in Scotland. However, he marched into England and was defeated at the Battle of Worcester later in 1651 and fled to France and then Holland. The puritanical government of Oliver Cromwell eventually led to the Parliament at Westminster restoring the monarchy. However, Charles never returned to Scotland in the following 25 years. James VII (1685-1689) 
The second son of Charles I, James VII had advanced to be High Admiral of the Spanish fleet when the restoration of his brother, Charles II made him commander of the English fleet instead, as Duke of York. In 1664 James became governor of the American territory which had been controlled by the Dutch. New York was renamed in his honour. James, at that time a Protestant, introduced religious tolerance to the colonies which have survived to this day. Although he was converted to Catholicism in 1668, when he succeeded to the crown in 1685, at the age of 51, he promised to support the Church of England. Nevertheless, he savagely suppressed a revolt by the Duke of Monmouth and appointed Catholics in positions of influence. In 1688 his wife gave birth to James Francis Edward Stewart (the Old Pretender) but later in the year the Dutch Prince William of Orange (married to James’ Protestant daughter, Mary) landed with an army and James fled to France (dropping the Great Seal of England into the River Thames on the way). James attempted an invasion in Ireland in 1689 but after a bloody campaign was defeated by William of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne. James’ Jacobite supporters in Scotland were initially successful at the Battle of Killiecrankie on 27 July 1689 but were defeated later in the year at Battle of Dunkeld and in 1690 at the Battle of Cromdale. William and Mary (1689-1702) 

Daughter of James VII and a Protestant, Mary married her cousin, the Dutch Prince William of Orange, Stadtholder of the Netherlands, in 1677 at the age of 15. Prince William had become a Protestant champion as a result of his resistance to Louis XIV of France. Despite William’s preference for male company and lack of children, William & Mary worked successfully together. She insisted on William being regarded as King rather than consort and William reconciled Mary with her younger sister Anne. As noted in the section above, King William defeated an attempted rebellion by James VII in Ulster in 1690. When Mary died in 1694, William continued as monarch until his death in 1702. Anne (1702-1714) 
James VII’s second daughter, Queen Anne was regarded as an amiable if not a very bright individual who carried out her duties as required. She had 18 pregnancies, many of which miscarried or did not survive infancy – the oldest lasted to age 11. She suffered from gout (and could not walk on her coronation, aged 37). It was during her reign that the Act of Union, uniting the Parliaments of Scotland and England was passed in 1707. In order to ensure the succession of a Protestant monarch, the Act of Succession was passed in 1701, appointing the Electress Sophia of Hanover, grand-daughter of James VI. Her son George, Elector of Hanover, became King George I in 1714.

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