Scotland and its History.(ethnics)

People of Scotland.

Ethnic groups.

For many centuries continual strife characterized relations between the Celtic Scots of the Highlands and the western islands and the Anglo-Saxons of the Lowlands. Only since the 20th century has the mixture been widely seen as a basis for a rich unified Scottish culture; the people of Shetland and Orkney have tended to remain apart from both of these elements and to look to Scandinavia as the mirror of their Norse heritage. Important immigrant groups have arrived, most notably Irish labourers; there have also been significant groups of Jews, Lithuanians, Italians, and, after World War II, Poles and others, as well as a more recent influx of Asians, especially from Pakistan. The enlargement of the European Union in 2004 led to a dramatic increase in immigration from the countries of eastern Europe.

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OOR WULLIE.(funny)

Another adventure from the Scottish lad in comic form..

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Scottish Towns-Cities. E.L

East Lothian (/ˈloʊðiən/ScotsEast LowdenScottish GaelicLodainn an Ear) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, as well as a historic countyregistration county and lieutenancy area. The county was also known as Haddingtonshire.

In 1975, the historic county was incorporated for local government purposes into Lothian Region as East Lothian District, with some slight alterations of its boundaries. The Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 later created East Lothian as one of 32 modern council areas. East Lothian lies south of the Firth of Forth in the eastern central Lowlands of Scotland. It borders Edinburgh to the west, Midlothian to the south-west and the Scottish Borders to the south. Its administrative centre and former county town is Haddington while the largest town is Musselburgh.

Haddingtonshire has ancient origins and is named in a charter of 1139 as Hadintunschira and in another of 1141 as Hadintunshire. Three of the county’s towns were designated as royal burghsHaddingtonDunbar, and North Berwick.

As with the rest of Lothian, it formed part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Bernicia and later the Kingdom of Northumbria. Popular legend suggests that it was at a battle between the Picts and Angles in the East Lothian village of Athelstaneford in 823 that the flag of Scotland was conceived. From the 10th century, Lothian transferred from the Kingdom of England to the authority of the monarchs of Scotland. It was a cross-point in battles between England and Scotland and later the site of a significant Jacobite victory against Government forces in the Battle of Prestonpans. In the 19th century, the county is mentioned in the Gazetteer for Scotland as chiefly agricultural, with farming, fishing and coal-mining forming significant parts of the local economy.


Early history.

Following the end of the Roman occupation of Britain, Lothian was populated by Brythonic-speaking Ancient Britons and formed part of the kingdom of the Gododdin, within the Hen Ogledd or Old North. In the 7th century, all of the Gododdin’s territory fell to the Angles, with Lothian becoming part of the kingdom of Bernicia.

Bernicia united into the Kingdom of Northumbria which itself became part of the early Kingdom of England. Lothian came under the control of the Scottish monarchy in the 10th century.

The earliest reference to Haddingtonshire as a county of Scotland occurred in the 12th century, in two charters issued by King David.

Medieval and early modern period.

Dirleton Castle

Haddingtonshire was heavily involved in several medieval and early modern conflicts and several fortified castles and buildings such as Dunbar CastleTantallon Castle and Dirleton Castle date from this period.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Palace of Haddington was one of the seats of the Kings of Scotland. King William the Lion of Scotland used the palace from time to time and it was the birthplace of Alexander II in 1198.[3] The palace and town were burned and pillaged in 1216, by an English army under the command of King John of England. In 1296, the Battle of Dunbar was a decisive victory for the forces of Edward I of England against the forces of John Balliol, the Scottish king who was Edward’s vassal.

East Lothian was also the site of conflict during the war of the Rough Wooing, with many houses and villages burnt by the English in May 1544 after the sacking of Edinburgh, the Scottish defeat at the battle of PinkieDunbar Castle burnt in 1548, and the siege of Haddington. East Lothian lairds supported the English cause, including John Cockburn of OrmistonAlexander Crichton of Brunstane, and Regent Arran demolished their houses.

During the War of the Three Kingdoms, another Battle of Dunbar took place in 1650 between Scottish Covenanter forces and the Parliamentary forces under Oliver Cromwell. The Parliamentary forces were victorious and able to march on to take Edinburgh.

Following the Restoration of the monarchy, Glorious Revolution and Acts of UnionJacobite forces conflicted with Government forces, with the main conflict taking place as part of the 1715 Rising and 1745 Rising. Under the command of Sir John Cope, the British Army met with the Jacobites under Charles Edward Stuart at the Battle of Prestonpans in the west of the county in September 1745, with the Jacobite side gaining a significant victory before being defeated at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746.

Modern history.

County Buildings in Court Street, Haddington, the former headquarters of East Lothian County Council

The local government saw major reforms in Scotland by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889, which gave Haddingtonshire a county council, replacing earlier functions of the Commissioners of Supply and local Justices of the Peace. East Lothian County Council was based at County Buildings in Court Street, Haddington.[4]

In 1975 under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, Scotland’s county councils were dissolved and a new system of regional and district councils was created. East Lothian District was created within the wider Lothian region. The district comprised the historic county of East Lothian plus the burgh of Musselburgh and the parish of Inveresk (which included Wallyford and Whitecraig) from the county of Midlothian.

When further reforms in 1996 moved Scotland to a system of 32 unitary local authorities, the modern council area of East Lothian was created.


East Lothian is predominantly rural. It has 40 miles (64 km) of coastline where the towns of MusselburghPrestonpansCockenzie and Port SetonGullaneNorth Berwick and Dunbar lie along the coast of the Firth of Forth. The coast has several headlands and bays, most notably Gosford BayAberlady BayGullane PointSandy HirstTyne MouthBelhaven BayBarns NessChapel Point and Torness Point. There are several small islands off the coast north of North Berwick, the largest of these being FidraLambCraigleith and Bass Rock.

Only two towns are landlocked, Tranent and Haddington. To the south are the Lammermuir Hills along the boundary with Berwickshire; it is here that Meikle Says Law, the highest point in the county at 535 metres (1,755 ft), can be found. The River Tyne flows through Haddington and several of East Lothian’s villages, reaching the Firth of Forth near Belhaven. The River Esk flows through Inveresk and Musselburgh where it empties at the north of the town into the Firth of Forth. Major bodies of water include Pressmennan Lake, the Whiteadder ReservoirHopes ReservoirStobshiel Reservoir and Lammerloch Reservoir.

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Famous Scots. Alexander Aikman.

Alexander Aikman (23 June 1755 – 6 July 1838) was a Scottish printer, newspaper publisher, planter, and member of Jamaica’s House of Assembly. From 1805 to 1825, he was a member of the House of Assembly as the representative of Saint George parish.

Early life.

He was born on 23 June 1755 at Barrowstounness (Bo’ness), County of Linlithgow (now part of Falkirk Council), Scotland. His parents Andrew Aikman (1723-1785) and Ann Hunter (1730-1759). Ann was the only child of William Hunter and Margaret Aynsley.

His older brother was William Aikman (1751-1784). William immigrated to the British Colony of Jamaica in 1775. There, he became involved in the printing business with David Douglass. William died childless at the age of 33.

His older sister was Marion Aikman (1753- ). Marion married Alexander Henderson in 1782 and raised their family in Scotland.

After his mother passed, his father married Janet Nimmo in 1766. Together they had three sons: (John, Andrew, and James) and two daughters (Janet and Mary), all of whom remained in Scotland.

In 1771, at the age of sixteen, Alexander left Scotland for British South Carolina, He settled in Charleston and apprenticed himself to Robert Wells (1728-1794), a Loyalist and fellow Scotsman.

In British America, Robert Wells was a major book-trading, printer, and newspaper publisher. By 1764, Wells ran his own newspaper, the South Carolina and American General Gazette. By 1775, Wells claimed to have the largest stock of books for sale in America. While in Charleston, Wells wrote and published his version of “Travestie of Virgil.” Wells was a “fervent Loyalist.” Consequently, at the opening of the American Revolutionary War, Wells left the colonies and relocated to London.

Robert Wells married Mary Rowand. Together, they had six children, including Louisa Susannah WellsWilliam Charles Wells, and Helena Wells. While apprenticing for Wells, Alexander Aikman clerked alongside Wells’ daughter, Louisa Susannah Wells, for about four years.


Kingston, & Port Royal. From Windsor Farm by James Hakewill

At the American Revolutionary War, Alexander, in common with several other Loyalists, left British America and immigrated to the British Colony of Jamaica. He arrived in Saint George Parish, about 1777, at the age of 22. Soon after his arrival, he purchased the printing business of Robert Sherlock of Spanish-Town. In 1779 he founded The Jamaica Mercury and Kingston Weekly Advertiser with David Douglass (d. 1786). In 1780 it became The Royal Gazette. It was published weekly in Port Royal Street, but soon afterward in Harbour Street. Alexander’s older brother William operated a book and stationery store on King Street.

In 1780 Douglass and Aikman became printers to the House of Assembly and the King’s Printer. In addition, they printed “Almanac and Register,” “Observations on the Dysentery of the West Indies,” “A Brief History of the Late Expedition against Fort San Juan,” and other books. After Douglass died in 1786, Alexander Aikman became the printer. In 1803 Alexander Aikman & Son were the printers. In 1809 it was Alexander Aikman Jr. After his son’s death in 1831, Alexander, for a short time, resumed his printing and publishing businesses before retiring.

From 1805 to 1825, Alexander represented the old parish of Saint George as a member of British Jamaica’s House of Assembly. During that period, he owned three properties, two of which were in Saint George Parish.

Aikman visited England in 1796 to hire a pressman (in which voyage he was taken by a privateer, and had to repurchase his property at Philadelphia). He visited again in 1801, in 1803, and in 1814, but from that time had remained at home.

En route to his 1796 London visit, it appears Alexander experienced another incident. His daughter’s gravestone describes surviving a shipwreck off Isle of Wight’s coast. Others confirm the passage of a significant storm in the English Channel, which caused significant damage, injuries, and death. From Susannah Aikman’s altar tomb (see: Louisa Susanna Wells’ page for detail):

In the memorable Storm of Novr. 17th and 18th 1795, she escaped shipwreck, together with her Father, Mother, and infant Sister when above 2000 of their fellow creatures met a watery grave near the back of this Island.

Alexander was a wealthy man. He owned four properties, each of which initially relied on slaves. Those properties were “Birnam Wood” in Saint George (257 enslaved), “Wallenford” in Saint George (58 enslaved), “Prospect Pen” in Saint Andrew (39 enslaved), and his printing office in Kingston (3 enslaved). In 1831, approximately 60,000 of Jamaica’s 300,000 slaves initiated a strike, which escalated and became the Baptist War. In 1834, slavery was abolished throughout Jamaica, British West Indies, and the British Empire. In Jamaica, former slaves transitioned to an apprenticeship program, with full freedom in 1838.

Prospect Pen was also known as Prospect Park, which subsequently became Vale Royal. Later, Vale Royal became the official residence of the Colonial Secretary.


He married at Kingston, Jamaica, on 14 January 1782, Louisa Susannah Wells (1755-1831), second daughter of his former master Robert Wells. She joined him from England after no little peril, having twice attempted the voyage: on the first attempt, she was captured by the French, by whom she was detained for three months in France, and on the second by a King’s ship, in consequence of taking her passage in a slave vessel. By this lady who died on 29 November 1831 (and of whom a brief memoir will be found in the Gentleman’s Magazine vol. CI pt. ii, p. 571), Aikman had two sons and eight daughters. Of their ten children, six died as infants. All six infants are buried near his brother, Andrew, at The Strangers’ Burial Ground in Kingston.

His three surviving daughters were Mary Ann (1782-1844), the wife of James Smith of Saint Andrews, Jamaica, Ann Hunter (1788-1841), the widow of John Enright, Surgeon R.N (1795-1817), and Susanna (1791-1818).

His only surviving son and successor in business was Alexander Aikman Jr. (1783-1831). In 1805, Alexander Aikman Jr. married Charlotte Cory (1781-1810). Together, they had two children: Alexander Wells Aikman (1808-1869) and Amelia Ann Aikman (1809-1818). After Charlotte’s passing, Alexander’s two children were raised by his mother, Louisa Susannah Aikman. Four years later, in 1814, Alexander Aikman Jr. married Mary Bryan (1787-1850) and had seven more children: four daughters and three sons. Alexander Aikman Jr. died on April 1831 at the age of 47, leaving several young children. After his son’s death, Alexander Aikman Sr. returned to the family printing business.

Alexander’s wife, Louisa, removed to CowesIsle of Wight, presumably to be with her daughter, Susannah. It was in Cowes where she raised her grandchildren Alexander Wells and Amelia Ann. In 1831, Louisa died in Isle of Wight, thirteen years after her daughter.


Aikman died on 6 July 1838 at Prospect Park, Saint Andrew, Jamaica, aged 83. He is buried at St. Andrew’s Parish Church, commonly called “Half-Way-Tree Church.” His son and daughter-in-law Charlotte Cory Aikman is buried in the same cemetery. In an obituary notice, published in Gentleman’s Magazine, it was said that “he was a truly honorable, worthy and charitable man, and his death is much lamented.”

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My Poetry. Imaginary friend.

Born as a child alone
who could not find a friend?
parents who worked too hard
Alice was left to defend.
At school Alice was a master
bright for her age
her tutors were always proud of her
and in studies she would engage.
But in-home life she was lonely
all she had was Jenny
she liked her friend so much
and it did not cost a penny.
Jenny was always there
when times were tough and hard
she always knew just what to say
and produced the winning card.
Alice became withdrawn
her parents wondered why
Jenny was all she spoke of
and it made her poor mom cry.
All Alice wanted was to be listened too
but her parents were always away
perhaps if they took some time for her
she would be alive today.
Jenny told Alice her life should now end
because being alone is unhealthy
sometimes having everything in this world
doesn’t always make someone wealthy.
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Infamous Scots. Euphame MacCalzean.

Euphame MacCalzean (born before 1558, died 25 June 1591 in Edinburgh) was burnt to death as a result of the North Berwick witch trials of 1590–1591.

Early life.

She was born at Clifton Hall, west of Edinburgh, the only child of Thomas McCalzean (Lord Cliftonhall), an eminent Edinburgh judge, future Provost of Edinburgh, and Senator of the College of Justice from 1570, who recognized Euphame legally as his daughter and heir in 1558.

MacCalzean married Patrick Moscrop or Moscrope, who served as a Justice deputy, but the relative power of their families meant that Patrick took her father-in-law’s surname of MacCalzean. This was normal practice where trying to preserve a family name where the sole heir was female. They were married by December 1579 when they made a joint contract with a Canongate burgess.

In 1586 Eufame and Patrick were involved in a dispute with Edinburgh town council. During an outbreak of plague, on Christmas Day 1585, the council had moved the quarantined and infected people from the Borough Muir, or modern Meadows, to her property at “Quhytehous”, or Whitehouse, without permission or compensation. The Privy Council found in her favour.

Euphame and Patrick had at least five children.

North Berwick witch trials of 1590–1591

North Berwick witch trials

The cause of the events that led to the North Berwick Witch Trials was the behavior of a maid named Geillis Duncan. Duncan had ostensibly cured illnesses, raising suspicions, in November 1590. Her employer became suspicious that she was deriving her powers from the Devil. Duncan confessed, possibly under duress, to witchcraft and she implicated others including John Cane and Euphame MacCalzean.

MacCalzean, Agnes Sampson and several others were accused of witchcraft. It was alleged that they had killed the Earl of Angus by witchcraft, and planned to murder the first king of England and Scotland, James VI. James was a king by divine right and he was seen as the chief defender against the Devil. James was convinced that magic was involved when Agnes Sampson recounted details of James’ first night with his wife Anne of Denmark. The prosecutors cast MacCalzean as a controlling personality who used magic to bewitch her husband. She allegedly tried to cause the deaths of her husband, his father, and his extended family.

The charges included the accusation that she had used her skills to relieve the God-ordained pain of women giving birth. Macalzean was said to have caused the death of her cousin and her nephew. She had argued with her uncle over the ownership of some land at Cliftonhall in Kirkliston and it was alleged that she had killed his son, her nephew, because of this dispute. MacCalzean was said to have attended an assembly of witches at Acheson’s Haven where an image of James VI was given to the devil for the destruction of the king.


Witches’s plaque, Castle Esplanade

MacCalzean was found guilty and burnt alive on 25 June 1591 on the southern slope of the Castle Hill below Edinburgh Castle. The fire was built with materials bought by the town council for the execution of Barbara Napier, which was deferred.

A plaque on the Castle Esplanade remembers the event.

James VI gave her estate of Cliftonhall to his favourite Sir James Sandilands of Slamannan.

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Scotland and its History. R.B

britannia’s timeline

Britannia was the first Royal Yacht to be built with complete ocean-going capacity and designed as a Royal residence to entertain guests around the world. When she was decommissioned in 1997, it marked the end of a long tradition of British Royal Yachts, dating back to 1660 and the reign of Charles II.

There is additional information about Britannia’s specifications and construction contained in the technical paper.


victoria & albert iii

Britannia’s predecessor was the Victoria & Albert III – the first Royal Yacht not to be powered by sail. It was built for Queen Victoria, but she never stepped on board, concerned about the yacht’s stability. King Edward VII did sail on the Victoria & Albert, mainly in local waters and the Mediterranean. Having served four sovereigns over 38 years and not left Northern Europe since 1911, the Victoria & Albert was decommissioned in 1939. She was eventually broken up for scrap at Faslane in 1954

Royal Yacht Britannia Black and White


the last royal yacht

It was decided that a new Royal Yacht should be commissioned that could travel the globe and double as a hospital ship in time of war. It was also hoped a convalescence cruise would help the King’s ailing health. The John Brown & Co shipyard in Clydebank received the order from the Admiralty for a new ship on 4 February, 1952. Sadly King George VI, The Queen’s father, passed away two days later. Not only did The Queen now have to prepare for her new role, but she also had responsibility for the commissioning of the new Royal Yacht.


built in scotland

John Brown & Co was one of the most famous shipyards in the world, having built the famous liners Queen Elizabeth and Queen Mary. The keel of the new, as yet unnamed, Royal Yacht was laid down in June 1952. One of the last fully-riveted ships to be built with a remarkably smooth painted hull, she was finally ready to be launched on 16 April, 1953. The ship’s name was a closely guarded secret, only being revealed when The Queen smashed a bottle of Empire wine (Champagne was considered too extravagant in post-war Britain) and announced to the expectant crowds “I name this ship Britannia… I wish success to her and all who sail in her”. You can read more about getting Britannia ready for Royal service by downloading Letters from a Fish to his Admiral (below), a series of notes and letters written by Acting Captain J S Dalglish, the Officer in charge of commissioning Britannia. John Brown continued as a shipyard until they sadly closed in 2001.LETTERS FROM A FISH TO HIS ADMIRAL (PDF)


britannia commissioned

After the launch, Britannia’s building work continued as her funnel and masts were installed, before beginning sea trials on 3 November 1953 off the West Coast of Scotland. On successful completion, she was commissioned into the Royal Navy on 11 January 1954. On 22 April, Britannia sailed into her first overseas port as she entered Grand Harbour, Malta. During 44 years in Royal service Britannia sailed the equivalent of once round the world for each year, calling at over 600 ports in 135 countries, including the United States of America, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

Building of Yacht - Royal Yacht Britannia 9


royal honeymoons

Britannia was an ideal Royal honeymoon venue. The Royal Yacht was very private and could sail to secluded locations. Four Royal honeymoons were enjoyed on board, Princess Margaret and Anthony Armstrong-Jones being the first in 1960.

Princess Margaret returns from her honeymoon


the first day at sea

As well as hosting state functions, Britannia was an ambassador for British business, promoting trade and industry around the globe. These British overseas trade missions were known as ‘Sea Days’ and an invitation to come aboard proved irresistible to the world’s leading business and political figures. The Overseas Trade Board estimated that £3 billion was made for the Exchequer as a result of commercial days on Britannia between 1991 and 1995 alone.

Commonwealth Heads Of Government taken on Britannia's Verandah Deck


evacuation of aden, south yemen

At 20:00 on 17 January 1986, the Yacht dropped anchor at Khormaksar Beach. Civil war had broken out in South Yemen and ships were urgently required to evacuate British nationals and others trapped by fighting. As a non-combatant Royal Navy ship, Britannia would be able to enter territorial waters without further inflaming the conflict.

Royal Yacht Britannia Black and White



“Looking back over forty-four years we can all reflect with pride and gratitude upon this great ship which has served the country, the Royal Navy and my family with such distinction.” – Her Majesty The Queen. View the entire Paying-Off Ceremony letter from the Queen below.THE QUEEN’S PAYING-OFF CEREMONY LETTER (PDF)

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Famous Scots. Andy Stewart.

Andrew Stewart MBE (30 December 1933 – 11 October 1993) was a Scottish singer entertainer and songwriter. He presented the BBC TV variety show The White Heather Club throughout the 1960s, and his song “Donald Where’s Your Troosers?” was a hit in both 1960 and 1989. Internationally, the song most closely associated with Stewart is “A Scottish Soldier“.

Early life and education.

Stewart was born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1933, the son of a teacher. When he was five years old, the family moved to Perth and then, six years later, to Arbroath. Even in early childhood, he loved imitating people and amazed his parents with impersonations of famous singers and actors. He attended Arbroath High School, where his father taught science.

In 1950, at the age of 16, he participated in the Arbroath Abbey Pageant, taking the part of “A Knight in Shining Armour”. Up until this time, he had not thought seriously about a career in entertainment, as he had aspirations of becoming a veterinary surgeon. He then decided to train as an actor at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama in Glasgow, where he studied until 1954. During his first year at the college, he obtained First Prize for Comedy; he also excelled in fencing, particularly at the foil.


Stewart’s patriotic wearing of tartan and his use of stereotypical Scottish humour throughout the 1960s, echoed the music hall style and songs of fellow Scot Sir Harry Lauder.

Stewart himself attributed his “breakthrough” onto the international stage to the success of his “A Scottish Soldier” recording, which became a no. 1 hit in Canada, Australia and New Zealand, spent 36 weeks in the UK singles charts (1961), reached no. 69 on the US Billboard Hot 100 and also achieved hit status in South Africa and India. His other international hit singles included “Come in-Come in”, “Donald Where’s Your Troosers?“, “Campbeltown Loch“, “The Muckin’ O’ Geordie’s Byre”, “The Road to Dundee“, “The Battle’s O’er” (No. 1 on the Australian charts in July 1961), “Take Me Back”, “Tunes of Glory”, and “Dr. Finlay” (1965). He is also remembered for being the compere of The White Heather Club. This was a BBC Scotland television programme that existed as an annual New Year’s Eve party (1957–1968), and also as a weekly early-evening series (1960–1968). At the height of its popularity, the show had a viewership of 10 million.

“Donald Where’s Your Troosers?” was a hit in late 1960 and again when reissued in 1989. Stewart is said to have written the song in 10 minutes as he sat, minus trousers, in the lavatory of a recording studio.[1] It was also featured in the US TV show Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles, sung by one of the Terminators, played by Garret Dillahunt. Stewart included an Elvis Presley impersonation halfway through the song. On the strength of this comedy hit, Stewart toured Australia and appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1968, doing impersonations of Dean Martin. His skill with different accents is also evident on “The Rumour”, where the rumour moves across Scotland and into Ireland, with Stewart speaking in a different accent for each place. Stewart’s stage shows often included his impersonations of other famous singers, including Tom JonesBilly EckstineLouis Armstrong, Dean Martin, Johnnie Ray, Elvis Presley, Petula Clark and Johnny Cash.

His albums, such as Scottish SoldierThe Best of Andy Stewart and Andy Stewart’s Scotland, were also popular internationally. In 1973 he recorded a “live” album in Johannesburg, South Africa, entitled Andy Stewart in South Africa – White Heather Concert, which also featured accordionist Jimmy Blue, singers Alexander Morrison and Anna Desti and pianist Mark Simpson.

His international appeal was well-illustrated by his appearance at the World Fair, New York in 1964, attended by many thousands of people. From the early 1960s to the mid-1980s, he frequently and successfully toured Canada, the US, Australia and New Zealand. He appeared in concert throughout South Africa in 1968, 1971 and 1973. He also performed in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) as well as in Singapore and Hong Kong. Coming out of retirement in 1991, he began tours at home and abroad once again.

A prolific lyricist, he penned words to many traditional Scottish tunes, e.g. “Green Hills of Tyrol” (which he called “A Scottish Soldier”), “The Black Bear” (“Tunes of Glory”), and “The Battle is Over”(“The Battle’s O’er”) etc. He wrote his first lyric at the age of 14 (to a tune composed by his father) and called the song “My Hameland”, which in 1969 (21 years later) became the title track of one of his albums.

Stewart took part in the 1961, 1962 and 1978 Royal Variety Performances and also appeared for the Royal Family at a Christmas party at Windsor Castle.

Scotch Corner, a Scottish television series (1972–1976) featured Andy Stewart and various guest singers and musicians. Some of the artists included in these broadcasts accompanied Stewart on his international White Heather concert tours during the 1970s. Andy’s Party was another popular TV series on Grampian Television in the late 1970s.

He was the subject of This Is Your Life in 1975 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews.

From 1973 onward, recurrent ill-health took its toll on his voice and stage vitality. Frequently hospitalised in the 1970s and 1980s, he underwent several heart and stomach operations, including triple heart bypass surgery in 1976 and again in 1991.

Retirement and death.

In retirement, he moved back to Arbroath. “Donald Where’s Your Troosers” was a surprise hit when reissued in late 1989. Marketed as a novelty song ideal for Christmas parties, it was actively promoted by BBC Radio One DJ Simon Mayo and reached number 4 on the UK Singles Chart. In response, Stewart provided a jingle for Mayo, “Simon, where’s your troosers?”.

Coming out of retirement in 1991, he began touring once again and recorded two CDs on the Scotdisc label. In 1993 a summer season at the Capitol Moat House Hotel in Edinburgh was cut short because of a back injury. A further long season for the following year was planned at the same venue. Shortly before he died in 1993, he gave a small concert at Arbroath High School for the pupils. He was also due to appear in The “Pride of the Clyde” at Glasgow’s Pavilion Theatre and other tours and concerts were planned. A sheltered housing scheme in Arbroath, ‘Andy Stewart Court’, was named in his memory.

Stewart died the day after a performance at a Gala Benefit Concert for Children’s Hospice Association Scotland (CHAS) at Usher Hall in Edinburgh. Stewart suffered a fatal heart attack at his home. Stewart’s funeral took place at St Andrew’s Church (Church of Scotland) in Arbroath on Friday 15 October. His family were joined by many stars and friends from the entertainment world. A large crowd gathered outside the church to pay their respects to “The Tartan Trooper”, while a piper played “A Scottish Soldier” and “The Battle’s O’er”.

Awards and family.

Stewart was awarded an MBE in 1976. He received the Freedom of Angus in 1987.

His son Ewan Stewart is an actor, whose film and television credits include Rob RoyTitanicValhalla RisingOnly Fools and Horses and River City.

Stewart’s grandson Harris Beattie played the title role of Billy Elliot in the eponymous West End production. In 2017 Harris won the prestigious Royal Academy of Dance Gold medal at the Genée International Ballet Competition and currently is a dancer with Northern Ballet based in Leeds. Another grandson, Alistair Beattie, currently tours internationally as a dancer in Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake (2018-2020).

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Scottish Mysteries. D.S

David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, was the unfortunate victim of a royal family feud. His father was Robert III, the King of Scots. Unfortunately, when Robert took the throne in 1390, he lacked the backing he needed to rule effectively. Support among the nobility was for Robert’s younger brother, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany. (That’s not a mistake—both brothers were called Robert at that point. Robert III had been born John Stewart, but he changed his name to Robert when he became king.) In 1399, David was appointed by his father to lieutenant of the kingdom, but his uncle wasn’t too pleased about the young lad gaining so much power. In order to maintain his stranglehold on Scotland, the younger Robert had his nephew arrested in 1401.

No one knows exactly what happened to David Stewart after that. It’s believed that he may have been starved to death in the dungeons. One story claims that he ate his own hands in a desperate bid to survive. The Duke of Albany claimed that David had simply died of dysentery. Either way, it’s believed that he was buried in an unmarked grave in Lindores Abbey, and the current owners of the land are using underground imaging in an attempt to locate the body. If they find it, they plan to use DNA to confirm it is the prince and set the record straight about how he died.

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Scottish Football Teams. Hearts.

Heart of Midlothian Football Club, commonly known as Hearts, is a professional football club in Edinburgh, Scotland. The team competes in the Scottish Professional Football League. Hearts, the oldest and most successful football club in the Scottish capital, was formed in 1874, its name influenced by Walter Scott’s novel The Heart of Midlothian. The club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the city’s Royal Mile; the team’s colours are maroon and white.

Hearts have played home matches at Tynecastle Park since 1886. After converting the ground into an all-seater stadium in 1990, it now has a capacity of 19,852 following the completion of a rebuilt main stand in 2017. They have training facilities at the Oriam, Scotland’s national performance centre for sport, where they also run their youth academy.

Heart of Midlothian have won the Scottish league championship four times, most recently in 1959–60, when they also retained the Scottish League Cup to complete a League and League Cup double – the only club outside of the Old Firm to achieve such a feat.

The club’s most successful period was under former player turned manager Tommy Walker from the early 1950s to mid 1960s. Between 1954 and 1962 they won two league titles, one Scottish Cup, and four Scottish League Cups, and also finished inside the league’s top four positions for 11 consecutive seasons between 1949–50 and 1959–60. Jimmy WardhaughWillie Bauld and Alfie Conn Sr., known as the Terrible Trio, were forwards at the start of this period with wing half linchpins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side. Along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young, they set the record for the number of goals scored in a Scottish league winning campaign (132). In doing so, they also became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100 (+103).

Hearts have also won the Scottish Cup eight times, most recently in 2012 after a 5–1 victory over Hibernian, their local rivals. They have since been beaten finalists in 2019, 2020 and 2022. All four of Hearts’ Scottish League Cup triumphs came under Walker, most recently a 1–0 victory against Kilmarnock in 1962. Their most recent League Cup Final appearance was in 2013, where they lost 3–2 to St Mirren.

In 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition. The club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate.

Early years

The club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a local policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of rugby and association football. In December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington This was the first time that Association rules had been seen in Edinburgh. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules. The new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The exact date of the club’s formation was never recorded; however, 1874 is regarded as the year of formation as it was when association rules were taken on, although Tom Purdie claimed the club was formed in 1873. The earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a sporting context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the same club who went on to form the football club, but it was common for football clubs in those days to play other sports as well.

The club took its name from historic county Midlothian, dating from the Middle Ages, as well as the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the Royal Mile, which marks the historic entrance to the Old Tolbooth jail, which was demolished in 1817 but was kept fresh in the mind by Walter Scott‘s novel The Heart of Midlothian.

Original Hearts strip.

Led by captain Tom Purdie the club played its matches in the East Meadows and in 1875 Hearts became members of the Scottish Football Association (SFA) and were founder members of the Edinburgh Football Association. By becoming members of the SFA Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time. Hearts played against 3rd Edinburgh Rifle Volunteers in October 1875 at Craigmount Park in Edinburgh. The game ended in a scoreless draw. A replay was held at the Meadows which again finished 0–0. Under rules at the time both clubs progressed to the next round with Hearts losing out to Drumpellier in the next round.

In the 1884–85 season, clubs in Scotland struggled to attract players, who were attracted to play in England, due to the games professional status there. After an 11–1 win in the Scottish Cup over Dunfermline a protest was raised against the club for fielding two professional players. Hearts were suspended by the SFA for two years as this was against the rules at the time. This was the first suspension of an SFA club. After a change of the clubs’ committee the club was readmitted.

Early success

Hearts had considerable success in the early years of the Scottish Football League, winning the league championship in 1895 and 1896. They also won four Scottish Cups in a 15-year period from 1891 to 1906. The team played against Sunderland in the 1894–95 World Championship, but lost with a 5–3 score. Hearts did win the World Championship title in 1902, beating Tottenham Hotspur 3–1 in Tynecastle Park, after a 0–0 in London a few months earlier.

Hearts in World War 1

Hearts War Memorial

Main articles: Heart of Midlothian F.C. and World War I and McCrae’s Battalion

Do not ask where Hearts are playing and then look at me askance. If it’s football that you’re wanting, you must come with us to France! Sir George McCrae

In November 1914, Heart of Midlothian comfortably led the First Division, having started the 1914–15 season with eight straight victories, including a 2–0 defeat of reigning champions Celtic.

This streak coincided with the start of the First World War and the beginnings of a public debate upon the morality of continuing professional football while young soldiers were dying on the front-line. A motion was placed before the Scottish Football Association to postpone the season, with one of its backers, Airdrieonians chairman Thomas Forsyth declaring that “playing football while our men are fighting is repugnant”. While this motion was defeated at the ballot box, with the SFA opting to wait for War Office advice, the East London philanthropist Frederick Charrington was orchestrating a public campaign to have professional football in Britain suspended, and achieving great popular support for his cause. The prime tactic of Charrington’s campaign was to shame football players and officials into action through public and private denouncement. In response, sixteen players from Hearts enlisted in Sir George McCrae‘s new volunteer battalion, joining en masse on 25 November 1914. The battalion was to become the 16th Royal Scots and was the first to earn the “footballer’s battalion” sobriquet. The group of volunteers also contained some 500 Hearts supporters and ticket-holders, 150 followers of Hibernian and a number of professional footballers from Raith Rovers, Falkirk and Dunfermline.

Military training was thus added to the Hearts players football training regime, and the side had a 20-game unbeaten run between October and February. However, exhaustion from their army exertions, twice including 10-hour nocturnal-marches the night before a league game, eventually led to a drop in form, as several enlisted players missed key games. Defeats to St Mirren and Morton allowed Celtic to usurp the Maroons and eventually claim the league title by 4 points.

The war claimed the lives of seven first team players: Duncan Currie, John Allan, James Boyd, Tom GracieErnest EllisJames Speedie and Harry Wattie as well as former player David Philip.

There are two war memorials to mark this period; The McCrae’s Battalion Great War Memorial in Contalmaison and the Heart of Midlothian War Memorial in Haymarket, Edinburgh donated to the city by the club in 1922. The latter was placed in storage due to the Edinburgh Trams work but has now been replaced a little to the east of its previous position. A further memorial commemorating the 1914 Hearts team has been proposed by the club. An annual pilgrimage is held by football supporters to Contalmaison every year, whilst Hearts hold their memorial services at Haymarket or, whilst it was in storage, at Tynecastle Park.

Inter war years.

Hearts collected no senior silverware in the inter war years. Tommy Walker joined the Hearts ground staff aged 16 in February 1932. As Scottish clubs could not then officially sign players until the age of 17, Walker played junior football for Linlithgow Rose until his birthday in May. A talented and elegant inside-forward, Walker quickly earned a place in the Hearts first team, helping the side to victory in the 1933 Jubilee edition of the Rosebery Charity Cup, in a season in which they finished 3rd in the league. He was a regular first team player by 1933–34 but despite some emphatic victories, inconsistent form limited Hearts to a sixth-place finish.

Despite Walker scoring 192 league goals for Hearts and playing in sides boasting numerous internationals, such as Scots Dave McCullochBarney BattlesAndy Anderson and Alex MassieWelshman Freddie Warren and Irishman Willie Reid, Walker was destined not to win a major honour as a player at Tynecastle. The closest Hearts came to success during his period there was a second place league finish in 1937–38.

Tommy Walker’s managerial era.

The first seeds of the Tommy Walker managerial success at Hearts were sown by Davie McLean. On 9 October 1948 after a mediocre start to the 1948–49 season, Hearts’ manager McLean gave a competitive first team debut to 20 year old centre forward Willie Bauld and 19 year old inside left Jimmy Wardhaugh, and 22 year old inside right Alfie Conn Sr. had already broken through to the first team so this game marked the first time all three were deployed as a combined attacking force. They became dubbed the Terrible Trio and scored over 900 Hearts goals between them (Wardhaugh 376, Bauld 355, Conn 221). As a unit they played 242 games together. The combination of Wardhaugh’s dribbling skills and non-stop running, Bauld’s cerebral play and prodigious aerial ability, and Conn’s energetic, tenacious style and powerful shooting complemented each other well. Their first match as a forward combination ended in a 6–1 defeat of Scot Symon‘s East Fife team of the era. This was notable as Symon’s team had defeated the Maroons 4–0 three weeks earlier.

A few weeks later in December 1948 Tommy Walker left during his third season at Chelsea to return to Hearts. He took the role of player-assistant to manager McLean. McLean’s intention was that Walker would be a steadying influence in a developing young team. However, after a single appearance at right-half in a 1–0 home defeat by Dundee, Walker retired to concentrate fully on learning the managerial ropes. Tangible progress was made in the League Championship in 1949–50 when Hearts finished third. As Tommy Walker had become more influential, McLean was co-opted to the Board on 16 March 1950.

Chart of Hearts’ yearly table positions in The League.

McLean’s death on 14 February 1951 saw Walker promoted to the position of manager. Walker’s reign was to prove the most successful period in the club’s history. Walker was always quick to acknowledge the contribution made by McLean and his fatherly interest in the welfare and development of the players. The important foundations Walker inherited from McLean included the Terrible Trio forwards, the full back pair of Bobby Parker and Tam McKenzie and half backs Bobby Dougan and Davie Laing. To this established core John Cumming had recently broken through to the first team in the left half position he was to dominate for many years. Freddie Glidden was already at Tynecastle but yet to first team debut as was the then schoolboy Dave Mackay. Walker made Parker the team Captain.

Mackay’s key signing as a professional was under Walker in 1952 (initially part-time whilst also working as a joiner). Mackay’s pairing with Cumming at wing half was to become the nucleus of the team in the middle of the pitch. Mackay was a supremely talented all round player of ferocious tackling, endless running and sublime ball control. Cumming’s Iron Man nickname says much of his fearless determination. Despite his commitment he retained control of his temper and was never booked in his career. Cumming was the only player to collect medals for all seven of the trophies Hearts won under Walker. “He never had a bad game. It was either a fairly good game or an excellent game,” said Mackay later of his former teammate. Both went on to become full Scotland internationalists while playing for Hearts.

Bauld’s value to the team was underlined in 1952/53, when he missed eight vital league games through ankle injuries. Hearts were struggling, but with Bauld’s return to full fitness came a change in fortunes. From the bottom half of the league they surged up the table to finish in fourth place (as they had the two previous seasons). That resurgence also took them to a 1952–53 Scottish Cup semi final against Rangers before 116,262 fans at Hampden Park in Glasgow. Wardhaugh scored in the 2–1 defeat. Hearts were now though on an upward trajectory.

In 1953–54, Wardhaugh became the A Division‘s top scorer with 27 goals as Hearts appeared set to win the League championship. However, on 13 March 1954 in the Scottish Cup quarter final 3–0 defeat away to Aberdeen, Parker broke his jaw, Conn injured his back, and Wardhaugh collected a serious shin bone injury. Dougan already had a lengthy knee injury meaning 9 November 1953 was his last competitive Hearts first team game (Dougan only subsequently played for Hearts in friendlies). Walker immediately tried Glidden to cover and he took over the centre half berth from Dougan. A stuttering end to their season saw Celtic overtake them. The young Mackay was given his first team debut on 7 November of that 1953–54 season one week before his nineteenth birthday. Naturally more left sided than right, Mackay played in the number six jersey normally associated with the absent Cumming. Mackay’s next two appearances though weren’t until mid March immediately after the Aberdeen cup defeat when again he played in Cumming’s position. It wasn’t until 17 April 1954 in a 1–0 win at Clyde that Walker first selected Mackay, Glidden and Cumming in the numbers four, five and six.

The team was boosted by the signing of Ian Crawford in August 1954. Mackay was given his extended place in the team in the 1954–55 season immediately after Laing’s 5 September transfer to Clyde. It was from this point that Walker settled on Mackay, Glidden and Cumming as his combination for the number four, five and six jerseys. They promptly became a trophy winning force lifting the first of seven trophies over nine seasons between 1954 and 1963. In October of the 1954–55 season they won their first trophy since 1906, 48 years before. They beat Motherwell 4–2 in the 1954 Scottish League Cup Final. Bauld scored three and Wardhaugh scored one in the final giving the team their break through trophy. Hearts gained some recompense against Celtic from the season before by beating them home and away in that 1954–55 Scottish League Cup group stage.

After signing Alex Young and Bobby Kirk, Walker’s side proceeded to win the 1955–56 Scottish Cup.They thrashed Rangers 4–0 in the quarter finals with goals from Crawford, Conn and a Bauld double Cumming’s commitment to the team was typified in that 1956 Scottish Cup Final before 132,840 fans. With blood streaming from a first half head injury from a clash with Celtic’s Willie Fernie he said, “Blood doesn’t show on a maroon jersey”. He returned to the playing field in the 3–1 win and was man of the match. That quote is now displayed above the entrance to the players tunnel at Tynecastle. Kirk could play in either full back role and played on the right in the final at the expense of Parker. Glidden lifted the trophy as Hearts captain in what he recalled as the “sweetest” moment in his footballing career.

Wardhaugh was the top tier’s leading scorer again that season. The scorers in the cup final win over Celtic were Crawford with two and one from Conn. Conn ended that 1955–56 season at the peak of his powers aged 29 with a career best 29 goals from 41 games. On 2 May 1956 two weeks after the cup win Conn became the third of the terrible trio to collect a full Scotland cap. At Hampden Park he put his side ahead after 12 minutes in a 1–1 draw with Austria. However the following September he suffered a broken jaw playing against Hibernian keeping him out until January. The days of the Terrible Trio as a combined force were nearing their end.

17 year old Gordon Marshall debuted in 1956 as did George Thomson in February 1957. Marshall, a future England under 23 internationalist, became a Hearts goalkeeping regular until 1963. Hearts led the Scottish League for most of the 1956–57 season. The title hinged on Rangers visit to Tynecastle on 13 April. A capacity crowd watched a tense game in which Rangers keeper, George Niven, was man of the match. Hearts could not beat him and the only goal came from Billy Simpson of Rangers who scored on the break in 35 minutes. Rangers had games in hand which they won to overtake Hearts and lift the trophy.

Walker completed the set of having won all three major Scottish football trophies with the League Championship in 1957–58. Conn suffered a serious ankle injury meaning he only played in five league games all season. Injury hit Conn left Hearts for Raith Rovers in September 1958 just two years after his 1956 zenith. He did so after 408 first team games and 221 goals. With an injury hit Bauld only playing nine times in the league title win a new Hearts attacking trio were dominant. For a third time Wardhaugh was the League’s top marksman with 28 strikes. This was one ahead of Jimmy Murray‘s 27 and four more than Young’s 24. Mackay, now Captain, was fourth in Hearts’ league scoring charts with 12. Hearts won that League title in 1957–58 with record-breaking points, goals scored and goal difference. Their record from 34 league games of 62 points out of a maximum possible 68 was 13 more than their nearest rival. They scored 132 goals (still the Scottish top tier record) with only 29 against for a record net difference of +103. This was Hearts’ greatest ever league side. Murray and Mackay both played for Scotland at the 1958 FIFA World Cup where Murray scored in a 1–1 draw against Yugoslavia. Parker was a fringe player in the league winning season, his last season as a Hearts player. He moved to the club coaching staff before joining the Board of Directors where he also had a spell as chairman.

In the 1958–59 Scottish League Cup group stage Hearts eliminated Rangers. That October 1958 Scottish League Cup Final was won with a heavy 5–1 defeat of Partick Thistle. Bauld and Murray each scored two and Johnny Hamilton netted one. Hearts defended their league title by being leaders in mid December. However a side visiting Ibrox missing injured Mackay were beaten 5–0 with all goals in the first 35 minutes. This put Rangers into top position in the table on goal average. This precipitated a run of only two wins from the next seven games without injured Mackay. Hearts beat Queen of the South in a 2–1 home league win on 7 March 1959. After that QoS game Rangers with six games to play were firm favourites for the title, six points ahead of second placed Hearts. Even if Hearts were to win their remaining seven games including a game in hand and beating Rangers in their visit Tynecastle in Rangers’ penultimate game of the season, Rangers would still have to drop two points elsewhere and give away a superior goal average. The league game against QoS was Mackay’s last for Hearts after they accepted a bid of £32,000 from Tottenham Hotspur for their captain who was fit at this time despite having had lengthy spells out injured in the previous 12 months. Bobby Rankin was brought in to bolster the squad and scored twice in each of his first two games (both victories). On the penultimate Saturday of the league campaign goals by Cumming and Rankin at home to Rangers meant Hearts were four points behind with a game in hand. In midweek they next won 4–2 at Aberdeen with Rankin scoring a hat-trick. The last day of the season began with Rangers two points clear with an identical goal average to Hearts. Rangers thus needed a point to clinch the title but lost 2–1 at home to Aberdeen. Despite missing Bobby Kirk at right back with a knee injury, Rankin’s ninth goal from his fifth Hearts game had Hearts 1–0 up at half time at Celtic Park. Any victory would have given Hearts the title. Then Celtic’s Bertie Auld playing at left wing equalised before Eric Smith scored Celtic’s winning second goal to seal the title for their cross city rivals leaving those at Tynecastle to wonder what would have happened if Mackay hadn’t been sold when he was.

Mackay’s name as a club mainstay at half back was eventually taken over by Billy Higgins. That League Cup win was also Glidden’s last trophy as a recurring back injury that season numbered his playing days at Tynecastle. 36 year old MacKenzie left in 1959 as did Wardhaugh. He scored 206 goals in 304 league games and a total of 376 goals in 518 games for Hearts.

After collecting three Scottish championships and 19 full Scotland caps at Hibernian, Gordon Smith had a recurring ankle injury leading to his free transfer in 1959. Smith believed that an operation could cure the injury and paid for an operation on the offending ankle himself. He then signed for Hearts, his boyhood heroes. He enjoyed immediate success at Tynecastle, winning both the 1959 Scottish League Cup Final and league title in his first season with the club. Hamilton scored for Hearts in that second successive League Cup Final and Young hit the winner. Third Lanark were beaten 2–1. 1960 ended with Walker being awarded the OBE for services to football.

The 1960s saw Hearts fortunes fluctuate as Walker attempted to adapt to football’s tactical changes by implementing a 4–2–4 formation. Young and Thomson departed for Everton in November 1960. At Everton Young was known as The Golden Vision and became another from the Walker production line of full Scotland internationalists. Smith had an injury hit season leading to his joining Dundee (who became the third club with whom he won the Scottish title). Hearts signed further future full internationalists in Willie Wallace and David Holt. Hearts lost the 1961 Scottish League Cup Final after a replay. Cumming scored a deserved equalising penalty for Hearts in the first game 1–1 draw they largely dominated against the Scot Symon managed Rangers. Norrie Davidson scored a then equalising Hearts goal when they lost in the 3–1 replay defeat.

Bauld left Hearts in 1962 with 355 goals from 510 first team appearances. Another future internationalist, Willie Hamilton, joined for the run culminating in the 1962 Scottish League Cup Final win. Hearts won the trophy for a fourth time with a 1–0 final win over Willie Waddell‘s fine Kilmarnock side of that era. Davidson’s goal this time proved decisive. Like in the 1954–55 win Hearts eliminated Celtic in that 1962-63 Scottish League Cup group stage.

In 1964–65 Hearts fought out a championship title race with Waddell’s Kilmarnock. In the era of two points for a win Hearts were three points clear with two games remaining. Hearts drew with Dundee United meaning the last game of the season with the two title challengers playing each other at Tynecastle would be a league decider. Kilmarnock needed to win by a two-goal margin to take the title. Hearts entered the game as favourites with both a statistical and home advantage. They also had a solid pedigree of trophy winning under Walker. Waddell’s Kilmarnock in contrast had been nearly men. Four times in the previous five seasons they had finished league runners-up including Hearts’ triumph in 1960. Killie had also lost three domestic cup finals during the same period including the 1962 League Cup Final defeat to Hearts. Hearts had won five of the six senior cup finals they played in under Walker. Even the final they had lost was in a replay after drawing the first game. Hearts’ Roald Jensen hit the post after six minutes. Kilmarnock then scored twice through Davie Sneddon and Brian McIlroy after 27 and 29 minutes. Alan Gordon had an excellent chance to clinch the title for Hearts in second half injury time but was denied by a Bobby Ferguson diving save pushing the ball past the post. The 2–0 defeat meant Hearts lost the title by an average of 0.042 goals. Subsequently, Hearts were instrumental in pushing through a change to use goal difference to separate teams level on points. Ironically this rule change later denied Hearts the title in 1985–86.

Following a slump in results, Walker resigned in September 1966. Under his management Hearts had won 7 senior trophies and been runners up in five others. Cumming left the playing staff a year later and joined the coaching team.

Latter 20th century

The highlight of the late 60s was the run to the 1968 Scottish Cup Final when they lost 3–1 to George Farm‘s Dunfermline Athletic. The players of greatest note in the late sixties were Jim CruickshankAlan Anderson and Donald Ford with Drew Busby joining the three in the 1970s. The high point of the 1970s was another run to the Scottish Cup Final. In 1975–76 they again lost 3–1 in the final this time to Rangers. After the advent of the ten team Premier Division in 1975, Hearts were subsequently relegated for the first time in 1977. This began a sequence of yo-yoing between the Premier League and First Division six times in seven seasons.

On 25 May 1981, 34-year-old Wallace Mercer became chairman after buying a controlling interest in Hearts for £265,000. Hearts had just been relegated from the top flight for the third time in five seasons. The following December (1981), Mercer promoted Alex MacDonald to be Player-Manager. At the end of the 1982–83 season Hearts were promoted back to the top flight. This marked an upturn in their fortunes to rejoin the more competitive clubs in Scotland’s top flight. The 1985–86 season was their best since 1965. The league campaign started with the loss of five of the first eight games. From there the club went on a 27-game unbeaten league run, reaching the top of the league on 21 December after a 1–0 win at St Mirren.

Hearts needed a draw from the last game of the season away to Dundee on 3 May 1986 to win the Scottish league title. Before that final game they were two points ahead of Celtic and with a superior goal difference of four goals. However, this strong statistical position was undermined in the run up to the game when several players in the Hearts squad were hit by a viral infection. Craig Levein failed to recover to make the game in Dundee. Celtic were 4–0 up away at St Mirren at half time in their final fixture. Thus, at half time the players knew that they would have to deliver a result at Dens Park. Substitute Albert Kidd forced Hearts to concede a corner kick with seven minutes remaining. The in-swinging corner was touched on and fell to Kidd who put Dundee ahead. This was the first goal Hearts had conceded from a corner all season. Hearts now needed an equaliser to win the title. However, Kidd went on a run with the ball from the halfway line down the right wing beating two Hearts players. After then playing a one-two with a teammate on the edge of the Hearts box he finished to score a second with four minutes left. Dundee won 2–0. This combined with Celtic winning 5–0 against St Mirren meant the top two clubs finished the season on the same number of points. Hearts lost out to Celtic by a goal difference of three. Had goal difference been the rule in 1965 Hearts would have been champions; had goal average still applied in 1986, they would have won the league. Hearts lobbying after the league loss in 1965 cost them the title in 1986.

Hearts had been chasing a League and Scottish Cup double. After eliminating Rangers and Jim McLean‘s Dundee United they faced Alex Ferguson‘s Aberdeen in the final; Aberdeen won 3–0 meaning Hearts finished runners-up as they had in the league.

Hearts finished league runners-up again in 1988 and 1992. The club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate. After MacDonald’s summer 1990 departure the club struggled to settle on a manager. Within a two-year period, Joe JordanSandy Clark and Tommy McLean were all sacked. From April 1989 to April 1994, Hearts went on a run of 22 games in a row without defeat against arch-rivals Hibernian in the Edinburgh Derby.

In 1994 Mercer sold his shares in Hearts to Chris Robinson and Leslie Deans. Under Mercer, Hearts finished second in the Scottish top tier three times and once in the Scottish Cup, but his time at the helm concluded without senior silverware. His personal influence at the club is perhaps best remembered with an attempted merger with Hibs in 1990. Seen by Hibs fans as an attempted take over to liquidate their club, Mercer’s attempts were met with bitterness and acrimony before he backed away.

In 1998, Hearts beat Rangers 2–1 to lift the Scottish Cup under the management of ex Hearts player, Jim JefferiesColin Cameron scored a first-minute penalty and Stephane Adam added after half time. This was Hearts’ first senior trophy win since the 1962–63 Scottish League Cup won in the Tommy Walker era.

Into the 21st century

Hearts finished third in 2003 and 2004, and reached the inaugural group stages of the UEFA Cup in 2004–05, but finished bottom of their group, despite Robbie Neilson‘s goal giving a 2–1 victory over FC Basel. During the 2004–05 season, they finished fifth in the league.

In 2004, then club CEO Chris Robinson announced plans to sell Tynecastle, which he claimed was “not fit for purpose”, and instead have Hearts rent Murrayfield from the Scottish Rugby Union. This move was deemed necessary due to the club’s increasingly large debt. The plan was very unpopular with supporters, and a campaign, entitled Save Our Hearts, was set up to try to block the move. As Robinson and his supporters had a slight majority of the club’s shares, a preliminary deal to sell the stadium was struck with the Cala property development company for just over £20 million.

The Romanov era

Main article: Vladimir Romanov’s ownership of Heart of Midlothian F.C.

In August 2004 the midst of Hearts’ financial difficulties RussianLithuanian multi-millionaire Vladimir Romanov entered into talks to take over Hearts in what was dubbed the “Romanov Revolution”. Romanov had already made failed attempts to purchase Dundee UnitedDundee and Dunfermline. Romanov offered the prospect of the club staying at a redeveloped Tynecastle, which was very attractive to Hearts supporters. At the end of September 2004 Chris Robinson agreed to sell his 19.6% stake to Romanov. Romanov called an extraordinary general meeting in January 2005 so that the club could pass a motion to exercise the escape clause in the deal with Cala Homes. The backing of Leslie Deans and the McGrail brothers meant that the motion was passed with over 70% support. The sale of Robinson’s shares was completed on 2 February 2005 after Romanov made financial guarantees that the club could continue to trade without selling Tynecastle. This sale increased Romanov’s stake to 29.9%, giving him effective control of the club. Romanov’s takeover was welcomed by a fans’ representative. Romanov increased his shareholding in Hearts to 55.5% on 21 October 2005, and offered to buy the rest of the shares. Chairman George Foulkes sold his shares to Romanov and encouraged others to do likewise. Romanov eventually increased his majority share in Hearts to 82%.

Romanov’s management of the club’s debt became a cause for concern. During his takeover Romanov pledged to eradicate the club’s debt. Soon after the takeover was completed, the debt was transferred from HBOS and SMG to the financial institutions controlled by Romanov, Ūkio bankas and UBIG. At the end of July 2007 the club were £36M in debt. On 7 July 2008, Hearts issued a statement that stated the club would issue debt for equity to reduce the debt by £12M. A further issue was completed in 2010. Since the takeover Hearts had failed to pay players wages on time on several occasions, and were threatened with administration twice due to failure to pay an outstanding tax bills with the bill finally being settled in August 2011. Results released for the financial year ending 31 July 2010 showed that Hearts had made a small profit for the first time since 1999, although they were still heavily in debt.

Hearts’ first manager of the Romanov era was George Burley, who was appointed during close season by new chief executive Phil Anderton, who replaced Chris Robinson as chief executive. With their new manager and signings, Hearts got off to a tremendous start in the 2005–06 season. The team won their first eight league matches, equalling a club record set in 1914. Romanov shocked Scottish football by sacking George Burley on the following day whilst Hearts were sitting top of the SPL table; Hearts ultimately finished second. Hearts fans were led to expect a “top class manager” would replace Burley. Kevin Keegan Bobby RobsonClaudio Ranieri and Ottmar Hitzfeld were all linked with the vacancy. Anderton, who had been making the approaches for these coaches, was sacked by Romanov on 31 October 2005. Foulkes, who had helped to bring Romanov to the club in the first place, resigned in protest at Anderton’s dismissal. Romanov replaced both of them with his son, Roman Romanov. This proved to be a feature of his time at the club, going through nine permanent managers in seven years. The next managerial change after those came on 1 August 2011 when Jim Jefferies was sacked during his second spell at the club and replaced by former Sporting CP boss Paulo Sérgio.

Romanov stated that his ultimate aim was for Hearts to win the Champions League. Hearts competed in the Champions League during season 2006–07 but progressed only as far the second qualifying round before dropping down to the UEFA Cup. Since then Hearts have been unable to split the Old Firm for a second time to earn a Champions League place. Hearts target became finishing third or above in the SPL.

Romanov also owned the Lithuanian club FBK Kaunas and Belarusian club FC Partizan Minsk. Several players were loaned by FBK Kaunas to Hearts when Romanov acquired control of the club.

The club began experiencing severe financial problems in November 2011, which meant they were unable to pay the players’ wages, and the club was put up for sale. The squad’s October salaries were late and the November wages were paid twenty-nine days late, just one day before their December salaries were due. The December pay failed to arrive on time, and a complaint was lodged with the Scottish Premier League by the players’ union. During this period the club advised fringe players they were free to leave the club On 4 January 2012 the SPL ordered Hearts to pay all outstanding wages by 11 January 2012 and insisted that January’s wages had to be paid on time on 16 January. Hearts paid all outstanding wages that day following the sale of Eggert Jónsson to Wolves. On 17 January, the day after Hearts’ wages were due to be paid, it was revealed all players had been paid. Despite this, the SPL issued a statement saying Hearts had failed to pay all players on 16 January and an emergency board meeting had been called; Hearts refuted this, saying payment of the remuneration had been made to all players. On 7 November 2012, Hearts were issued with a winding-up order by the Court of Session in Edinburgh after failing to pay a tax bill on time.

In early June 2013, during the close season, a Hearts media statement stated that they would need to raise £500,000 in capital to keep the club up and running during the break between seasons. With no match day income coming in and a lack of finance from owner Romanov, the club were left in a position where they had to put their whole squad up for sale.

On 17 June 2013, Heart of Midlothian began the process of entering into administration with debts of £25 million, owing recently bankrupt Ukio bankas £15 million.

On 18 June 2013, a Scandinavian consortium offered to pay the club £500,000 immediately in return for a share of any future transfer income from up to 12 players; this was rejected by Hearts. The process of entering administration began on 19 June 2013 when the club’s parent company, Ukio Bankas Investment Group (UBIG), filed papers at the Court of Session on Edinburgh for accountancy firm BDO to be named as administrators.


On 17 June 2013 Hearts announced that they had lodged court papers stating their intention to enter administration, and on 19 June 2013 the administrators BDO were appointed to run the club. This meant that the club was unable to register players over 21 until February 2014 at the earliest. As long as they were still in administration they would not be able to bring in players of any age.

As well as the signing embargo, Hearts were to be deducted a third of the previous season’s points tally which meant the club would start the 2013–2014 season with −15 points. During this period the BDO administrator Trevor Birch pleaded with Hearts fans to purchase season tickets and stated that they needed to sell at least another 3000 season tickets to raise another £800,000 to keep the club running and avoiding liquidation. The fans met this number and took total season ticket sales beyond the 10,000 mark, giving the club more survival time. A deadline of 12 July 2013 was set for interested parties to put in formal bids for the club; there were three bids entered for the club which were received from the supporters group “The Foundation of Hearts”, the second from a new company called “HMFC limited” which was backed by American firm Club Sports 9 and a third from former Livingston FC owner Angelo Massone through Five Star Football Limited.

On 15 August 2013, “The Foundation of Hearts” were given preferred bidders status to make a CVA with Hearts’ creditors. The money that the foundation used to purchase the club came from monthly donations from fans; the foundation received an interest-free loan from a wealthy fan, which was to be paid back using the monthly direct debts from the fans. On 2 December, Hearts’ creditors agreed to the CVA deal proposed by “The Foundation of Hearts”.

The club’s relegation from the Scottish Premiership was confirmed on 5 April 2014. Hearts won 4–2 away to Partick Thistle, but St Mirren beat Motherwell 3–2, making it impossible for Hearts to catch up.

On Monday 12 May 2014, The Ann Budge fronted Bidco 1874 took control of Heart of Midlothian Plc, thus bringing to an end to Vladimir Romanov’s involvement with the club. Budge, who fronted and financed the Bidco 1874 group which took over the reins at the club, became an unpaid executive chairwoman of the club. The Bidco group planned to hold the club for a possible five years, before the fans backed Foundation of Hearts supporters group take control. The Foundation put in £1 million for the running of the club until the final legal exit of administration. The Foundation then paid a further £2.6 million (£2.5m to cover the loan given by Bidco1874 Ltd to Hearts to finance the Creditors’ Voluntary Agreement + £100,000 for the shares) to take 75% of the shares in the club and with that the running and decision making within the club. In addition, the Foundation also committed itself to provide a further £2.8m (£1.4m per year for two years) working capital for the club. Funding for the deal came from 8000+ people donating cash via a monthly direct debit.

The club officially exited administration on 11 June 2014, also bringing to an end the signing embargo that had been imposed upon the club a year earlier.

Post administration.

Hearts earned an immediate return to the Scottish Premiership by clinching the 2014–15 Scottish Championship title with seven games remaining. Hearts remained undefeated for the first 20 league matches before a 3–2 home defeat to Falkirk ended that run. They won the title, winning 29 of 36 games, scoring 96 goals, conceding just 26 goals with a points total of 91. They finished the season 21 points ahead nearest challengers city-rivals Hibernian and 24 points ahead of third placed Rangers. The season included handing Cowdenbeath a joint club record defeat 10–0. At the PFA Scotland Awards, Hearts had six players named in Championship Team of the Year, two Young Player of the Year nominees, three Championship Player of the Year nominees, and Neilson shortlisted for Manager of the Year.

This period of renewed stability unravelled in the years following 2015. Despite finishing as runners up in the 2019 Scottish Cup Final, the club could only achieve mid-table placings in 20172018 and 2019. This decline took a turn for the worse in 2019–20, and Hearts were relegated after finishing bottom of the Scottish Premiership, having won only four matches across the course of the season (which had been truncated due to the COVID-19 pandemic). Their relegation was confirmed in June 2020, after league reconstruction talks instigated by Budge collapsed. The club confirmed that they would be pursuing legal action against the SPFL following their demotion to the Scottish Championship. The legal action failed, as a Scottish Football Association arbitration panel ruled that the SPFL had acted within its powers.

Robbie Neilson was appointed as Hearts manager for a second time in June 2020, signing a three-year deal. Former manager Jim Jefferies was recruited as an advisor to the board and manager in July. In August 2020, Andrew McKinlay was appointed as the club’s new Chief Executive. In June 2021, club captain Steven Naismith announced his retirement from football, taking up the role of Football Development Manager, focusing on the development of youth players “making their way towards the first team”.

On 30 August 2021, Ann Budge officially transferred the clubs shares to the Foundation of Hearts, meaning Hearts officially became the biggest fan owned club in the United Kingdom.

Colours and badge

The Heart of Midlothian mosaic, on which the current club crest is based

The original Hearts football strip was all white shirts and trousers with maroon trimmings, and a heart sewn onto the chest. For one season they played in red, white and blue stripes. These were the colours of a club called St. Andrew, who had taken their name and colours from the University of St Andrews, that Hearts had absorbed. Since then the predominant club colours have been maroon and white. The strip typically has a maroon top and a white collar, although the strip was predominantly white in the 2010–11 season. The shorts are normally white, although maroon was used in the 2008–09 season. The socks are normally maroon with some white detail.

Hearts’ current home kit is all maroon with a white collar.

The badge is a heart, based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the Royal Mile. There is a tradition to spit on the mosaic when passing, harking back to the days when the city gaol stood there.

For the 2014–2015 season the club chose to commemorate 100 years since McCrae’s Battalion with not only a commemorative strip, of maroon shirt, white shorts and black socks, but with a commemorative badge as well. The club chose to have no sponsor on the home top as a mark of respect to those who had joined the regiment.


Main article: Tynecastle Park

Hearts initially played at The Meadows, Powburn and Powderhall before moving to the Gorgie area in 1881. They moved to their current site, Tynecastle Park, in 1886. Tynecastle has hosted nine full Scotland international matches. Tynecastle was named after the Tynecastle Tollhouse, at the entrance to the grounds of Merchiston.

For most of the 20th Century, Tynecastle was a mostly terraced ground, with a seated main stand that was designed by Archibald Leitch and opened in 1919. The terraced sections were replaced by the Gorgie, Wheatfield and Roseburn Stands in the mid-1990s, making Tynecastle an all-seated stadium. In 2017, the main stand was demolished and replaced by a brand new stand which increased the ground’s capacity to 20,099. While this work was undertaken, Hearts played some of their home league matches at Murrayfield Stadium.


Main article: Edinburgh derby

Hearts midfielder Paul Hartley (#10) prepares to take a free kick in an Edinburgh derby match against Hibs, played on 26 December 2006.

Hearts have a traditional local rivalry in Edinburgh with Hibs; the Edinburgh derby match between the two clubs is one of the oldest rivalries in world football. Graham Spiers has described it as “one of the jewels of the Scottish game”. The clubs first met on Christmas Day 1875, when Hearts won 1–0, in the first match ever contested by Hibs. The two clubs became distinguished in Edinburgh after a five-game struggle for the Edinburgh Football Association Cup in 1878, which Hearts finally won with a 3–2 victory after four successive draws. The clubs have met twice in a Cup Final, in the 1896 Scottish Cup Final, which Hearts won 3–1 and the 2012 Scottish Cup Final which Hearts won 5–1. The 1896 final is also notable for being the only Scottish Cup Final to be played outside Glasgow.

Hearts have the better record in derbies. Approximately half of all derbies have been played in local competitions and friendlies. Hibs recorded the biggest derby win in a competitive match when they won 7–0 at Tynecastle on New Year’s Day 1973.

While it has been noted that religious background lies behind the rivalry, that aspect has been described as minor in relation to the sectarianism in Glasgow. In practice geography has been the main factor in establishing the support bases of the Edinburgh rivals: support for Hibs has always been founded in Leith and the surrounding areas in the north and east of the city, whereas the rest of Edinburgh has tended towards Hearts. Although the clubs are inescapable rivals, the rivalry is mainly “good-natured” and has had beneficial effects due to the demographic diversities; considering both of the clubs’ territories have a variety of neighbourhoods that differ economically, politically, denominationally, or all three at once.

Supporters and culture

Heart of Midlothian are one of two full-time professional football clubs in Edinburgh, the capital and second largest city in Scotland. Hearts’ average attendance during the 2019–20 season was 16,750. Important matches, particularly the Edinburgh derbyEuropean fixtures and games against the Old Firm, always see Tynecastle at or very close to full capacity.

The Hearts Song was written and performed by Scottish comedian Hector Nicol, a St Mirren fan. A new modern Hearts Song, performed by “Colin Chisholm & The Glasgow Branch”, has been played before matches at Tynecastle in recent seasons, though the original version returned for the 2019–2020 season. In 2020–2021 the modern version once again replaced the oldest.

The folk-anthem “There will always be Heart of Midlothian” by songwriter Neil Grant has been played regularly at Tynecastle Park since 2018. At the request of the Foundation of Hearts, Neil performed the rousing track live at Tynecastle during the Ladbrokes Premiership match against St Johnstone on 26 January 2019. The track gained additional exposure after being played on the BBC’s popular Off the Ball radio series.

Hearts have many celebrity fans including Stephen Hendry, the late Ronnie CorbettKen StottAlex SalmondSir Chris HoyWattie BuchanEilidh DoyleLee McGregorAndrew OldcornGavin HastingsMartin GeisslerNicky CampbellGrant Hutchison and the late Scott Hutchison.

Hearts were featured in the second season of Succession, where the team is bought by the character Roman Roy (Kieran Culkin) who, in an attempt to impress his father Logan (Brian Cox), mistakenly buys the Edinburgh rival of Logan’s actual favourite team, Hibs.

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My Poetry. Reality is a dream!

Open up my mind free my torment
the images are frightening to me
the battles that go on inside my head
are only for me to see.
Outside you see an ordinary man
who lives his life to the full?
but at night a different being
drowns in a deadly pool.
Torn by right, edging for wrong
magnetised in one direction
tearing away at your very soul
hiding for your own protection.
Your head feels like a leaded weight
you cannot lift it at all
pegged down by a gory end
you know you’re gonna fall.
Will it win? will it lose?
only the end is nigh
dragging you down the darkened lane
all you can do is sigh.
Torture knows no boundaries
as you fight for the right to live
strain has set upon your head
it will never give.
Darkness or light where is it?
there is nowhere left to turn
and so, the end is looming
as you feel the heat and burn.
Medication what is that?
does it make any odds?
only for the tired bodies
controlled by steel and rods.
Prize open my head let it escape
for it now needs new blood
open all the trapped doors
let loose and let it flood.
Struggling with bi-polar disorder.
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Scottish Mysteries. S.C

Eleven heavy silver chains like these have been found in Scotland, and nine survive today. They were made some time between 400 and 800 AD – it isn’t possible to date them any more closely because they were found a long time ago, so our archaeologists don’t have the kind of contextual information they’d have if they’d been discovered more recently. The chains were clearly potent symbols of power in Pictish times, yet we’re still not entirely sure what they were for. They look like neckpieces fit for a king, yet appear to be too small to fit a man. Were they worn by women, or even children? Our archaeologists are still investigating.

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Scottish Antiques-Collectables.(Chinoiserie)

A rare Green Chinoiserie Eight Day Longcase Clock, signed Robert Clidsdale, a highly collected renown Scottish clockmaker of the 18th century. Edinburgh, circa 1760, pagoda pediment, glazed side panels, case with Oriental scenes depicting figures, pagodas, boats and floral gilt decoration throughout, 11-3/4-inch arch brass dial with a silvered chapter ring, seconds dial and date aperture, arch with a silvered disc signed, strike/silent selection above 12, four pillar movement with an anchor escapement and rack striking on a bell, 231cm high.

Case with green painted surfaces slightly flaking in parts, (now touched in) painted surfaces are rubbed in parts,  case very good, dial is dirty, minute hand with signs of damage and has been later repaired. Overall working and in good condition. A very desirable clock from a very collectable and prominent Scottish clockmakers (Robt Clidsdale) Edinburgh.

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Scottish foods-Drinks. The Scotch Pie.

Scotch pie

Alternative namesMutton pie, shell pie, mince pie, football pie
TypeMeat pie
Place of originScotland
Serving temperatureHot or Cold
Main ingredientsMutton or other meat, hot water crust pastry
 Cookbook: Scotch pie

Scotch pie or mutton pie is a small, double-crust meat pie filled with minced mutton or other meat. It may also be known as a shell pie or mince pie (although the latter term is ambiguous) to differentiate it from other varieties of savoury pie, such as the steak pie, steak and kidney pie, steak-and-tattie (potato) pie, and so forth. The Scotch pie is believed to originate in Scotland, where it is simply called “a pie” but can be found in other parts of the United Kingdom, and is widely sold all over Canada. They are often sold alongside other types of hot food in football grounds, traditionally accompanied by a drink of Bovril, resulting in the occasional reference to football pies.

The traditional filling of mutton is often highly spiced with pepper and other ingredients and is placed inside a shell of hot water crust pastry. An individual piemaker’s precise recipe, including the types and quantities of spice used, is usually kept a close secret, for fear of imitations. It is baked in a round, straight-sided tin, about 8 cm in diameter and 4 cm high, and the top “crust” (which is soft) is placed about 1 cm lower than the rim to make a space for adding accompaniments such as mashed potatoes, baked beans, brown sauce, gravy or an egg.


Scotch pies are often served hot by take-away restaurants, bakeries and at outdoor events. The hard crust of the pie enables it to be eaten by hand with no wrapping. Typically there is a round hole of about 7.5mm in the centre of the top crust.

World Scotch Pie Championship

Every year, since 1999, Scottish Bakers, a trade association, hold the World Championship Scotch Pie Awards. The winner of the Scotch pie section of the competition is judged World Champion.

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Scottish Towns-Cities-(Aberdeen)

Aberdeen (/ˌæbərˈdiːn/ (listen); Scots: Aiberdeen, listen (help·info); Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain [opəɾ ˈɛ.ɛɲ]; Latin: Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is Scotland’s third most populous city, one of Scotland’s 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom’s 39th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and 227,560 for the local council area.

During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen’s buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content.  Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, Aberdeen has been known as the off-shore oil capital of Europe. The area around Aberdeen has been settled for at least 8,000 years,  when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don. The city has a long, sandy coastline and a marine climate, the latter resulting in chilly summers and mild winters.

Aberdeen Harbour, Scotland – location of bp and Aberdeen City Council joint hydrogen hub venture

Aberdeen received Royal Burgh status from David I of Scotland (1124–1153),  transforming the city economically. The city has two universities, the University of Aberdeen, founded in 1495, and Robert Gordon University, which was awarded university status in 1992, making Aberdeen the educational centre of north-east Scotland. The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making, shipbuilding, and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry and Aberdeen’s seaport. Aberdeen Heliport is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland.

Aberdeen used to host the Aberdeen International Youth Festival, a major international event which attracted up to 1000 of the most talented young performing arts companies but the council ended funding in 2017 and the festival was wound up in 2018. In 2015, Mercer named Aberdeen the 57th most liveable city in the world, as well as the fourth most liveable city in Britain.  In 2012, HSBC named Aberdeen as a leading business hub and one of eight ‘super cities’ spearheading the UK’s economy, marking it as the only city in Scotland to receive this accolade.  In 2018, Aberdeen was found to be the best city in the UK to start a business in a study released by card payment firm Paymentsense.

The Town House, Old Aberdeen. Once a separate burgh, Old Aberdeen was incorporated into the city in 1891

The Aberdeen area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years. The city began as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen at the mouth of the river Don; and New Aberdeen, a fishing and trading settlement, where the Denburn waterway entered the river Dee estuary.[14] The earliest charter was granted by William the Lion in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I.

In 1319, the Great Charter of Robert the Bruce transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stockett, whose income formed the basis for the city’s Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians.

During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Aberdeen was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308, followed executing the English garrison. The city was burned by Edward III of England in 1336, but was rebuilt and extended. The city was strongly fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770.

The Powis gate, Old Aberdeen, built in 1834

During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644 to 1647, the city was plundered by both sides. In 1644, it was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen and two years later it was stormed by a Royalist force under the command of the Marquis of Huntly. In 1647 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed a quarter of the population. In the 18th century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary at Woolmanhill in 1742 and the Lunatic Asylum in 1779. The council began major road improvements at the end of the 18th century with the main thoroughfares of George Street, King Street and Union Street all completed at the beginning of the 19th century.

Historical photos of Aberdeen c. 1900

The expensive infrastructure works led to the city becoming bankrupt in 1817 during the Post-Napoleonic depression, an economic downturn immediately after the Napoleonic Wars; but the city’s prosperity later recovered. The increasing economic importance of Aberdeen and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the construction of the present harbour including Victoria Dock and the South Breakwater, and the extension of the North Pier. Gas street lighting arrived in 1824 and an enhanced water supply appeared in 1830 when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865. The city was incorporated in 1891. Although Old Aberdeen has a separate history and still holds its ancient charter, it is no longer officially independent. It is an integral part of the city, as is Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of the River Dee.

Over the course of the Second World War Aberdeen was attacked 32 times by the German Luftwaffe. One of the most devastating attacks was on Wednesday 21 April 1943 when 29 Luftwaffe Dornier 217s flying from Stavanger, Norway attacked the city between the hours of 22:17 and 23:04. A total of 98 civilians and 27 servicemen were killed, along with 9,668 houses damaged, after a mixture of 127 Incendiary, High Explosive and Cluster bombs were dropped on the city in one night. It was also the last German raid on a Scottish city during the war.


Main article: Etymology of Aberdeen

Aberdeen was in Pictish territory and became Gaelic-speaking at some time in the medieval period. Old Aberdeen is the approximate location of Aberdon, the first settlement of Aberdeen; this literally means “the mouth of the Don”. The Celtic word aber means “river mouth”, as in modern Welsh (Aberystwyth, Aberdare, Aberbeeg etc.). The Scottish Gaelic name is Obar Dheathain (variation: Obairreadhain; *obar presumably being a loan from the earlier Pictish; the Gaelic term is inbhir), and in Latin, the Romans referred to the river as Devana. Mediaeval (or Ecclesiastical) Latin has it as Aberdonia.


Aberdeen is locally governed by Aberdeen City Council, which comprises forty-five councillors who represent the city’s wards and is headed by the Lord Provost. The current Lord Provost is Barney Crockett.  From May 2003 until May 2007 the council was run by a Liberal Democrat and Conservative Party coalition. Following the May 2007 local elections, the Liberal Democrats formed a new coalition with the Scottish National Party.  After a later SNP by-election gain from the Conservatives, this coalition held 28 of the 43 seats. Following the election of 4 May 2017, the council was controlled by a coalition of Scottish Labour, Scottish Conservatives and independent councillors; the Labour councillors were subsequently suspended by Scottish Labour Party leader, Kezia Dugdale.

Aberdeen is represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom by three constituencies: Aberdeen North and Aberdeen South which are wholly within the Aberdeen City council area, and Gordon, which includes a large area of the Aberdeenshire Council area.

In the Scottish Parliament, the city is represented by three constituencies with different boundaries: Aberdeen Central and Aberdeen Donside are wholly within the Aberdeen City council area. Aberdeen South and North Kincardine includes the North Kincardine ward of Aberdeenshire Council. A further seven MSPs are elected as part of the North East Scotland electoral region. In the European Parliament the city was represented by six MEPs as part of the all-inclusive Scotland constituency.

The arms and banner of the city show three silver towers on red. This motif dates from at least the time of Robert the Bruce and represents the buildings that stood on the three hills of medieval Aberdeen: Aberdeen Castle on Castle Hill (today’s Castlegate); the city gate on Port Hill; and a church on St Catherine’s Hill (now levelled).

Bon Accord is the motto of the city and is French for “Good Agreement”. Legend tells that its use dates from a password used by Robert the Bruce during the 14th-century Wars of Scottish Independence, when he and his men laid siege to the English-held Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308. It is still widely present in the city, throughout street names, business names and the city’s Bon Accord shopping mall.

The shield in the coat of arms is supported by two leopards. A local magazine is called the “Leopard” and, when Union Bridge was widened in the 20th century, small statues of the creature in a sitting position were cast and placed on top of the railing posts (known locally as Kelly’s Cats). The city’s toast is “Happy to meet, sorry to part, happy to meet again”; this has been commonly misinterpreted as the translation of Bon Accord.


Being sited between two river mouths, the city has little natural exposure of bedrock. This leaves local geologists in a slight quandary: despite the high concentration of geoscientists in the area (courtesy of the oil industry), there is only a vague understanding of what underlies the city. To the south side of the city, coastal cliffs expose high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Grampian Group; to the southwest and west are extensive granites intruded into similar high-grade schists; to the north, the metamorphics are intruded by gabbroic complexes instead.

The small amount of geophysics done, and occasional building-related exposures, combined with small exposures in the banks of the River Don, suggest that it is actually sited on an inlier of Devonian “Old Red” sandstones and silts. The outskirts of the city spread beyond the (inferred) limits of the outlier onto the surrounding metamorphic/ igneous complexes formed during the Dalradian period (approximately 480–600 million years ago) with sporadic areas of igneous Diorite granites to be found, such as that at the Rubislaw quarry which was used to build much of the Victorian parts of the city.

On the coast, Aberdeen has a long sand beach between the two rivers, the Dee and the Don, which turns into high sand dunes north of the Don stretching as far as Fraserburgh; to the south of the Dee are steep rocky cliff faces with only minor pebble and shingle beaches in deep inlets. A number of granite outcrops along the south coast have been quarried in the past, making for spectacular scenery and good rock-climbing.

The city extends to 185.7 km2 (71.7 sq mi), and includes the former burghs of Old Aberdeen, New Aberdeen, Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of River Dee. In 2017 this gave the city a population density of 1,225. The city is built on many hills, with the original beginnings of the city growing from Castle Hill, St. Catherine’s Hill and Windmill Hill.


Aberdeen features an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). Aberdeen has far milder winter temperatures than one might expect for its northern location, although statistically, it is the coldest city in the UK. During the winter, especially throughout December, the length of the day is very short, averaging 6 hours and 41 minutes between sunrise and sunset at the winter solstice.  As winter progresses, the length of the day grows fairly quickly, to 8 hours and 20 minutes by the end of January. Around summer solstice, the days will be around 18 hours long, having 17 hours and 55 minutes between sunrise and sunset. During this time of the year, marginal nautical twilight lasts the entire night. Temperatures at this time of year will be typically hovering around 17.0 °C (62.6 °F) during the day in most of the urban area, though nearer 16.0 °C (60.8 °F) directly on the coast, and around 18.0 to 19.0 °C (64.4 to 66.2 °F) in the westernmost suburbs,  illustrating the cooling effect of the North Sea during summer. In addition, from June onward skies are more overcast than in April/May, as reflected in a lower percentage of possible sunshine (the percentage of daylight hours that are sunny). These factors render summer to be temperate and cool for the latitude, both by European standards and also compared to far inland climates on other continents, with those patterns being reversed during the mild and moderated winters.

Two weather stations collect climate data for the area, Aberdeen/Dyce Airport, and Craibstone. Both are about 4

12 miles (7 km) to the north-west of the city centre, and given that they are in close proximity to each other, exhibit very similar climatic regimes. Dyce tends to have marginally warmer daytime temperatures year-round owing to its slightly lower elevation, though it is more susceptible to harsh frosts. The coldest temperature to occur in recent years was −16.8 °C (1.8 °F) during December 2010,  while the following winter, Dyce set a new February high-temperature station record on 28 February 2012 of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F).,  and a new March high-temperature record of 21.6 °C (70.9 °F) on 25 March 2012.

The average temperature of the sea ranges from 6.6 °C (43.9 °F) in March to 13.8 °C (56.8 °F) in August.

More Scottish Towns and Cities.

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Kings-Queens of Scotland Part 2.


This page covers all the kings and queens of Scotland from Robert the Bruce in 1306 up to the Union of the Parliaments in 1707 in the reign of Queen Anne. The dates shown beside each entry relates to the years in which they reigned. Part 1 of this feature describes the monarchs from the earliest times up to King John. There is also a further page showing a chronology of all the kings and queens of Scotland, England, United Kingdom and France. royalty kings and queens

Robert the Bruce’s grandfather, Robert Bruce of Annandale, who had estates in Huntingdon as well as Scotland, was one of the claimants to the throne of Scotland on the death of Queen Margaret, Maid of Norway, in 1290 (he was a descendant of King Alexander II). On the death of his father, the Earl of Carrick, Robert was reputedly the richest man in England. In 1306, after a quarrel and murdering John Comyn, Robert declared himself King of Scotland. He was crowned at Scone in March 1306 and then began a geurilla war against the English King Edward I. Initially he was not successful but gradually, with increasing support, he captured a number of castles – chivalrously allowing the defenders to return to England. Bruce heavily defeated the English army at Bannockburn in 1314 and defeated King Edward II’s invasion in 1322 by a “scorched earth” policy. King Edward III of England eventually agreed to the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1328 which recognised Scotland’s independence, ending the 30 years of the Wars of Independence. King Robert was gravely ill by this time and died at Cardross on 7 July 1329. His body was buried at Dunfermline Abbey but, at his request, his heart was taken on a Crusade against the Moors in Spain by James Douglas. It is now buried in Melrose Abbey. David II (1329-1371) 

king robert-i-king-

David was Robert the Bruce’s only surviving son, born when Bruce was aged 50, and was only five years old when his father died. In 1328 he had married Joan, sister of Edward III of England at the age four (she was seven). He was driven into exile in France by Edward Balliol (son of King John Balliol) who was supported by those who had been disinherited by Robert the Bruce. However, Bruce’s grandson, Robert Stewart, upheld his cause in Scotland. David returned from France in 1341, deposing Edward Balliol. In response to an appeal for help from France, King David invaded England in 1346 but was captured at the Battle of Neville’s Cross, remaining a prisoner at the English court until the Treaty of Berwick in 1357. David ruled with authority and included burgesses, as well as nobles in the Parliament and trade, increased during his rule. He married a second time, to Margaret Drummond but died without legitimate issue. He was succeeded by his nephew, Robert II the Steward. Edward Balliol (1332-1341 but with interruptions) 
Son of King John Balliol, the puppet of Edward I of England, Edward Balliol was acknowledged by some Scots as the heir to the throne. Taking advantage of King David II’s minority and the death of the Regent Randolph, Earl of Moray (and tacitly supported by Edward III of England), Edward Balliol sailed into Kinghorn in Fife in 1332 and defeated a Scots army, led by the inexperienced Earl of Mar at the Battle of Dupplin. He was crowned at Scone six weeks later but was deposed by the end of the year. He returned in 1333, was deposed in 1334, restored in 1335 and was finally deposed in 1341 (by which time King David II was 17 years old). Robert II (1371-1390) 

Son of Marjorie Bruce (daughter of King Robert the Bruce) and Walter, the High Steward of Scotland, Robert shared in the Regency during King David’s minority spent in France (1333-1341) and again from 1346 to 1357 after David’s capture at the Battle of Neville’s Cross. He came to the throne at the age of 55 after the death of the childless King David II, thus starting the House of Stewart. King Robert II was in a different mould from King David II and is known to have fathered at least 21 children, 14 legitimately with his two wives. Not much is known about his reign but he appears to have had numerous conflicts with his nobles. Elderly and infirm, he allowed power to pass to his eldest son, Robert III in 1384, six years before his death. Robert III (1390-1406) 
Son of Robert II, King Robert III was considered illegitimate by the Church due to the too-close consanguinity of his parents (though a Papal dispensation had been granted). Robert III was described as ‘feeble’, ‘timid’ and ‘unfit to rule’. He had been crippled as a result of a riding accident two years before he came to the throne. He had been baptised as ‘John’ but, in view of the potential confusion with John Balliol and the untimely fates of kings of that name in England and France, he was crowned as Robert III. He had a reputation for kindliness and justice. But his personal qualities and failing health undermined his authority and power was transferred to his brother the Duke of Albany and his eldest son, the Duke of Rothesay. However, Albany imprisoned the Duke of Rothesay in Falkland Palace where he died of starvation in 1402. The King then sent his younger son, James, to France in 1406 but after he had been captured by pirates off Flamborough Head, he became a prisoner of the English King Henry IV. King Robert III died some months later. James I (1406-1437) 


During James’ captivity in England (see paragraph above), the Duke of Albany (Robert III’s brother) and then (in 1420) the Duke’s son, Murdoch, acted as Regents. James, 12-years-old when captured, was held in the Tower of London but was given a good education. James was eventually released under the Treaty of London for a sizeable ransom and returned to be crowned King James I at Scone in 1424. James set about establishing his rule (the Regent Murdoch and his two sons were beheaded and the Lord of the Isles was imprisoned for a spell). He renewed the “Auld Alliance” with France but his attempts to dominate the nobility resulted in his murder in Perth in 1437. James II (1437-1460) 
Born in 1430, James II was only seven when he succeeded to the throne. Archibald 5th Earl Douglas became Regent until his death in 1439. The 6th Earl Douglas was dragged to his death in the presence of James during the “Black Dinner” in Edinburgh Castle in 1440. In 1452, James attempted to establish his authority and while trying to persuade the 8th Earl of Douglas to give up support for the Lord of the Isles, James lost his temper and stabbed him – his bodyguard then finished the job. During the ensuing conflict between the Douglas and Stewart supporters, the royal cannons demolished the Douglas strongholds. Later, in 1455, Parliament legislated for the Douglas fortresses to become royal possessions. The Lord of the Isles also succumbed. But in 1460, while inspecting a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle in 1460, the cannon exploded, killing the king. James III (1460-1488) 

The oldest surviving son of King James II, James III was nine years old when he was crowned at Kelso Abbey on 10 August 1460. A governing council, led by the King’s mother, took control and, during a civil war in England, managed to gain control of Berwick on Tweed. James married Margaret the daughter of the King of Denmark in 1469 and began to assert his own power. But in 1482, an English army, supporting the cause of James’ brother, Alexander, Duke of Albany, invaded. At this point, a group of Scottish nobles murdered some of the King’s favourites and imprisoned the King in Edinburgh castle as the English army advanced to Edinburgh. James survived but following further conflicts with some of the Border families, they encouraged his 15-year-old son to lead a rebellion. The opposing armies, both flying the lion rampant, met at the Battle of Sauchieburn, near Bannockburn on 11 June 1488. King James III was wounded in the battle and was subsequently killed by a man pretending to be a priest. James IV (1488-1513) 
As penance for causing the death of his father, James IV wore an iron chain around his waist for the rest of his life. He married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII in 1503. It was as a consequence of this marriage that the “Treaty of Everlasting Peace” was signed between Scotland and England at the time of the marriage- it lasted ten years. James had renewed the “Auld Alliance” with France when King Henry VIII of England had invaded France. James did not need to take action but nevertheless advanced into England. After some minor successes, he met an English army at Flodden on September 9 1513.

The battle was the heaviest defeat ever experienced by a Scottish army, with the slaughter of the King and the flower of Scottish nobility – at least ten earls, countless lords and an estimated death toll of 10,000 Scots from the Highlands and the Lowlands. James V (1513-1542) 
James V was 17 months old when he succeeded his father and various regents and nobles governed Scotland until he was 15 years. He was keen to accumulate wealth and married twice, obtaining handsome dowries on each occasion. This was the age when the Reformation was sweeping Europe (and Henry VIII had created the separate Church of England) but James was committed to the Catholic Church. James attempted to subdue the Border families and the Highland clans and while he was successful to a degree, they were conspicuous by their lack of support at the time of war. King Henry VIII invaded and the Scottish army was defeated at the Battle of Solway Moss on November 24 1542, with many of the Borderers surrendering without a fight and even delivering his nobles to the English. James returned to Linlithgow and Falkland Palaces, depressed and defeated. He died on 14 December 1542 at the age of 30, six days after his daughter, Mary, was born. Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1567) 

Under the guardianship of the 2nd Earl of Arran, the infant Mary was betrothed to the son of King Henry VIII of England. However, a pro-Fench and Catholic faction led by Mary’s mother, Mary of Guise, gained the ascendancy and the agreement was overturned. King Henry VIII sent an army into Scotland to enforce the marriage in what became known as the “Rough Wooing”. Mary was sent for safety to France where she married the Dauphin, the heir to the French crown, in 1558. She became Queen of France and Scotland in 1559 but her husband, King Francis II, died in 1560. Mary returned to Scotland despite the Protestant faith gaining the ascendancy. During Mary’s reign, she was attacked for her Catholic beliefs by the religious reformer John Knox. Mary married her first cousin, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, after a whirlwind courtship, in July 1565. The future James VI was born in June 1566. Darnley was murdered in 1567 and the Earl of Bothwell was accused but acquitted of the crime. A few months later Mary and Bothwell were married. Scandalised nobles imprisoned Mary in Loch Leven Castle and she was forced to abdicate in favour of her son, James VI. Mary escaped from Loch Leven in May 1568 but was defeated at the Battle of Langside on 13 May. She escaped to England but was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth I of England. A focus for Catholic plots, she was beheaded at Fotheringay Castle on 18 February 1587. James VI (1569-1625) 

Son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, James VI was proclaimed king at the age of one, following the enforced abdication of his mother. Like his grandfather, James V, the young King became hostage to various factions and saw a number of regents being murdered. He escaped at the age of 14 and asserted his own authority (including the execution of his recent captors, the Ruthvens). James was not in favour of the Protestants (who believed the King was “God’s sillie vassal”), preferring the Catholic faith. His ambition to become King of England as well as Scotland meant that he did nothing to mitigate the fate of his mother and in 1603, with the death of Queen Elizabeth I of England, the “Union of the Crowns” took place. He immediately travelled to London (returning to Scotland only once). He established Protestant Scots and English in Ulster (thus creating the origins of the Irish sectarian conflicts) and colonies in Virginia in North America and commissioned an authorised version of the Bible. Charles I (1625-1649) 
When Charles was born in 1600 no-one knew that he would be the last king born in Scotland. He was a frail, sickly child, unlike his eler brother Henry, Prince of Wales. But Henry died in 1616 and Charles I was crowned in 1625. Charles believed in the “Divine Right of Kings” which led him into conflict with Parliament both in Westminster and Scotland. In Scotland, the meddling of the king in church affairs led to the signing of the Covenant in 1638 and a call to arms. The English Parliament and the Scottish Presbyterians were both at loggerheads with the king and civil war broke out. The Marquis of Montrose carried out a brilliant campaign on behalf of the King in Scotland but with his cause lost in England, Charles surrendered to the Scottish army in 1646. He was subsequently handed over to the English Parliament and in 1649 he was executed. Charles II (1649-1685) 

Charles (and his younger brother James) were present at the Battle of Edge hill in 1645 when their father was defeated by Cromwell and the Roundheads. After exile in France, Charles returned to Scotland in 1650. Since Charles II was crowned at Scone on 1 January 1651, ten years before he was crowned in London, there was hardly an interregnum in Scotland. However, he marched into England and was defeated at the Battle of Worcester later in 1651 and fled to France and then Holland. The puritanical government of Oliver Cromwell eventually led to the Parliament at Westminster restoring the monarchy. However, Charles never returned to Scotland in the following 25 years. James VII (1685-1689) 
The second son of Charles I, James VII had advanced to be High Admiral of the Spanish fleet when the restoration of his brother, Charles II made him commander of the English fleet instead, as Duke of York. In 1664 James became governor of the American territory which had been controlled by the Dutch. New York was renamed in his honour. James, at that time a Protestant, introduced religious tolerance to the colonies which have survived to this day. Although he was converted to Catholicism in 1668, when he succeeded to the crown in 1685, at the age of 51, he promised to support the Church of England. Nevertheless, he savagely suppressed a revolt by the Duke of Monmouth and appointed Catholics in positions of influence. In 1688 his wife gave birth to James Francis Edward Stewart (the Old Pretender) but later in the year the Dutch Prince William of Orange (married to James’ Protestant daughter, Mary) landed with an army and James fled to France (dropping the Great Seal of England into the River Thames on the way). James attempted an invasion in Ireland in 1689 but after a bloody campaign was defeated by William of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne. James’ Jacobite supporters in Scotland were initially successful at the Battle of Killiecrankie on 27 July 1689 but were defeated later in the year at Battle of Dunkeld and in 1690 at the Battle of Cromdale. William and Mary (1689-1702) 

Daughter of James VII and a Protestant, Mary married her cousin, the Dutch Prince William of Orange, Stadtholder of the Netherlands, in 1677 at the age of 15. Prince William had become a Protestant champion as a result of his resistance to Louis XIV of France. Despite William’s preference for male company and lack of children, William & Mary worked successfully together. She insisted on William being regarded as King rather than consort and William reconciled Mary with her younger sister Anne. As noted in the section above, King William defeated an attempted rebellion by James VII in Ulster in 1690. When Mary died in 1694, William continued as monarch until his death in 1702. Anne (1702-1714) 
James VII’s second daughter, Queen Anne was regarded as an amiable if not a very bright individual who carried out her duties as required. She had 18 pregnancies, many of which miscarried or did not survive infancy – the oldest lasted to age 11. She suffered from gout (and could not walk on her coronation, aged 37). It was during her reign that the Act of Union, uniting the Parliaments of Scotland and England was passed in 1707. In order to ensure the succession of a Protestant monarch, the Act of Succession was passed in 1701, appointing the Electress Sophia of Hanover, grand-daughter of James VI. Her son George, Elector of Hanover, became King George I in 1714.

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Scottish Bands-Music. Gaelic War.

Scotland is renowned for its Music, here is a taster. enjoy.

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Scottish Battles. Culloden.

Scotland had many battles, especially with the English, for some strange reason we always wanted to fight with them. Below is the details for the battle of Culloden.
Another part of  Scottish History.

The last ever pitched battle to be fought on British soil took place on 16th April 1746 on Drummossie Moor, overlooking Inverness. At the Battle of Culloden, a well-supplied Hanoverian Government army led by the Duke of Cumberland, son of King George II, would face the forces of Charles Edward Stewart, The Young Pretender, in the final confrontation of the 1745 Jacobite Rising.
The Jacobite Rising was an attempt to overthrow the House of Hanover and restore the House of Stuart to the British throne. Having failed in their attempt to gain support in England and advance on London, the Jacobite’s had retreated all the way back to Scotland.

Under constant pressure from the King’s army, Charles marched his force of around 6,000 men ever further northward, before finally establishing a base at Inverness.
Ignoring advice to launch a guerrilla campaign, Charles chose to stage a defensive action and confront his enemy at nearby Drummossie Moor. He also ignored warnings that the marshy rough ground may favour the larger Government forces. And so, on a rain-soaked morning the Government army struck camp and headed towards the moorland around Culloden and Drummossie to take up their positions.
Over the first half-hour of the battle, Cumberland’s artillery battered the Jacobite lines, first with round shot and then grapeshot. Finally, Charles issued the orders his Highlanders had been waiting for, to charge the enemy.


Although hampered and slowed down by the boggy ground, many of the Highlanders reached the Government lines. In the bloody hand-to-hand fighting that followed, the new Redcoat tactic of bayoneting the exposed side of the man to the right, rather than confronting the one directly in front appears to have paid dividends. The Highlanders finally broke and fled, the entire battle had lasted less than an hour.

Over the weeks that followed, that Jacobite s that managed to escape the battlefield were hunted down and killed (as pictured below). Charles himself evaded capture for five long months, eventually making good his escape to France and final exile.

Key Facts:Date: 16th April 1746

War: Jacobite Rising Location: Culloden, near Inverness Belligerents: British Government, Jacobites (with support from France) Victors: British Government Numbers: British Government 8,000, Jacobites around 6,000 Casualties: British Government 300, Jacobites 1,500 – 2,000 Commanders: Duke of Cumberland (British Government),
Charles Edward Stuart.
Scottish Battles.

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Scottish Architecture. R.M

Royal Mile.

Hi friends, One of the rather spectacular places in the City of Edinburgh is the Royal Mile, its named because it is one mile long and leads to Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, the Palace is Visited by Her Majesty the Queen once a Year. This street is beautiful with endless Architecture and stories galore, they say certain parts are haunted. If going from HOLYROOD PALACE the road takes you to Edinburgh Castle.If you have not visited, I highly recommend you do if your love beautiful buildings and History.

Edinburgh’s Royal Mile is the heart of Scotland’s historic capital. A short walk away is the Grassmarket, an area steeped in the city’s colourful history.

Royal Mile, Edinburgh.

The Royal Mile runs through the heart of Edinburgh’s Old Town, connecting the magnificent Edinburgh Castle, perched high on a base of volcanic rock, with the splendours Palace of Holyrood house, resting in the shadow of Arthur’s Seat. The Mile is overlooked by impressive, towering tenements, between which cobbled closes and narrow stairways interlock to create a secret underground world.

Peppered with superb attractions such as The Real Mary King’s Close or the Scottish Storytelling Center, historical sites including St Giles’ Cathedral and some of the best eating and drinking spots in the city, the Royal Mile offers much to see and do. For a glimpse of recent history, be sure to visit the ultra-modern Scottish Parliament, a striking building boasting a cutting-edge design.

Once a medieval market place and site for public executions, the Grass market area is now a vibrant area buzzing with lively drinking spots and eclectic shops. Its detailed medieval architecture, stunning castle views and dynamic atmosphere make it one of the city’s most-loved areas, frequented by tourists, students and professionals alike.

Though Grass market executions ceased in 1784, some of the traditional area’s pubs, such as The Last Drop and Maggie Dickson’s, keep alive the bloody tale of a chequered past. The White Hart Inn has played host to some famous patrons, including Robert Burns, and like many other pubs in the Grassmarket, offers live music and acoustic performances on most nights. You can learn more about the area by following the free Greater Grassmarket Historic Trail map and listening to the free commentary.

Fashion fans will uncover a wealth of gems at Armstrong’s Vintage Emporium, a haven of retro clothes and quirky accessories, while Fabhatrix offers beautiful hand-made hats and accessories, perfect for a Scottish summer shower or winter frost. Scottish and European restaurants are dotted around the square, many of them offering outdoor seating areas for al fresco dining in the summer months.

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Scotland and its History. E.F

Edinburgh Festival.

Growing up in a fast-paced Town really had its benefits, everything was at hand, buses every 2 mins during the day and everything within walking distance once you got off the bus. Edinburgh is famous for many things but the most famous is the FESTIVAL, this City hosts an array of talent on a Yearly basis, lots of stars have been recognized by the festival were they played a part, so they owe it to that for their stardom.

Most Festival shows are in the Centre of the Town, near Princess street in small venues on a daily basis, alas most of the shows are tickets only although during the summer there are lots of street entertainers showing their talent for free. Some showcases include children’s Festival, Science Festival and much much more including the famous Military tattoo hosted around August every year, this attracts thousands of visitors worldwide and is a must if you ever plan to visit Scotland, tickets are always hot though so you need to be quick.

Not far from where I used to live is the yearly Leith festival, which is paraded in the streets with floats of various dressed up regalia, colourful and brilliant to see.
From the 6th to the 28th August yearly the tattoo attracts thousands of visitors yearly.
Edinburgh is a City of beauty but there is also plenty to see and do

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Scottish places of Interest. W.D

Scottish Whisky Distilleries.

Dear friends,

Scotland is well known for a lot of things but the main thing is Whisky, enjoyed Worldwide by millions of people, but did you know how it is made? In Scotland, there are many Distilleries which offer Tours, so next time you visit Scotland, why not take a tour and enjoy our Famous Brand.

Scottish Whisky regions

The Single Malt Whiskies of Scotland were traditionally grouped into four different main regions, Highlands, Campbeltown, Lowlands and Islay. This was not based on the specification but it had something to do with earlier regulations and excise. Later on, two more (sub) groups were added, the Islands and Speyside. It’s hard to imagine Campbeltown as a separate region but at one time the town had more than 20 distilleries!

So the six distinct whisky regions in Scotland, each with their own characteristics, are The Highlands, Islands, Lowland, Islay, Campbeltown and Speyside.

There is a selection of Malt Whisky Distilleries by region. This list gives an overview of the most interesting and/or popular distilleries and the possibilities for a guided tour. Please always check the opening times of a distillery yourself before planning a visit. You are not the first one to be disappointed in the summer, silent season or any other time for that matter.

Scottish Distilleries

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Famous Scots. Mary Queen of Scots.

Henry the VIII of England and Henry the second of France acknowledged the rights of the Scottish throne and tried to get Mary to marry one of their sons when she was of age at that time it was believed to be 13 upwards a girl was able to marry.

Mary sailed to France from her retreat at Dumbarton Castle, England had invaded Scotland just for a change, the King of France at the time offered Mary a safe haven and also offered troops to oppose the English. The condition was that Mary married his son Francois in France.

Francois and Mary were married in 1558 at Notre Dame Cathedral Mary was 15 her husband was 14. Part of the contract was that Mary would sign the crown over to her husband if she dies without a successor.
Mary indeed became the Queen of France, her husband passed away at an early age leaving her a widow at 18! And because of no successors, she was stripped of her crown and without choice had to return to Scotland.

Mary arrived back to a very different Scotland she had left at the age of 5, the country was in the middle of reformation, Mary was Protestant and caused a bit of a stir amongst both religions on her return.
At this time Elizabeth, the first was Queen of England, she tried in vain to have Mary married off to various suitors however Mary had other plans to perhaps marry a European to again establish rights to the throne.

In 1566 Mary gave Birth to James IV after marrying Lord Darnley.
After the murder of her friend Rizzio in front of her, Mary knew her time was short, her husband had murdered her friend and had many women even during their short marriage.

A plot was taken against Darnley a bomb was set in his residence and although he escaped the explosion he was found strangled in the grounds.
After an uprising in Scotland, Mary managed to get away and was sheltered in Dunbar castle with her then-lover the Earl of Bothwell.

The execution of Mary Queen of Scots.

At 24 Mary was taken prisoner and held in Loch Leven castle she was given the choice to either abdicate or face death so her son James IV could reign in her place, but she managed to escape and raised an army, but she was defeated by the Earl of Moray.

Against all advice she decided to seek refuge in England with her cousin Elizabeth the first, even knowing how her cousin Elizabeth feared her for her rights to the English throne, Mary was imprisoned in various Castles for over 19 years. She never saw Scotland on her son again.

A plot was made up which meant that Mary had intentions of Plotting for the death of Elizabeth, this was manufactured by Elizabeth’s advisors.
Mary was beheaded in 1587 at Fotheringhay Castle.


  1. Despite many movies depicting otherwise Mary and Elizabeth NEVER met in person.
  2. If either Mary or Elizabeth had been a man there would have been no issue regarding the crown as they could have married and settled all differences.
  3. In 1603 when Elizabeth died “the virgin queen” Marys son James IV took over the English throne, and United the Scottish and English under one rule.
  4. Elizabeth was buried in Westminster Abbey, Mary in Peterborough grounds, After his succession James had his Mother exhumed and placed in Westminster Abbey not far away from Elizabeth but in much better surroundings!
  5. ps the new movie is fantastic.
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Infamous Scots. Captain Robert Campbell.

Captain Robert Campbell, the 5th Laird of Glen Lyon, lived from 1630 to 2 August 1696. He was a minor member of the Scottish nobility, being a cousin of John Campbell, the 1st Earl of Breadalbane, but is chiefly remembered as the officer commanding the government troops that massacred the MacDonalds of Glencoe on 13 February 1692.

As the 5th Laird of Glen Lyon, Robert Campbell inherited Meggernie Castle from his father and spent freely on converting and extending a traditional castle into a grand mansion. Campbell’s expenditure on his castle was only one aspect of a lifestyle that might have been calculated to ruin him. He also gambled and drank excessively and invested in a range of speculative and unsuccessful ventures.
He initially tried to avoid bankruptcy by borrowing heavily from family, friends and even his tenants. He then sold all the timber in the parts of the Caledonian Forest clothing much of Glen Lyon at the time. After being cut down this was floated down the River Lyon, in places blocking the river and causing widespread flooding. Even this was not enough to clear Campbell’s debts, so he sold his estate to the Earl of Tullibardine in 1684, moving from the grandeur of Meggernie Castle to the much more modest house owned by his wife at Chesthill, near Fortingall. In 1689 even Chesthill was lost when Jacobite MacIains of Glencoe, relatives of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, sacked Glen Lyon after the Battle of Dunkeld.

In a final effort to support his family of a wife, three sons, and four daughters, the 59-year old Robert Campbell became an officer in the Earl of Argyll’s Regiment of Foot, a regular line regiment of the British Army based at Inverlochy (Fort William) under the command of Colonel John Hill, an English officer who had fought with Cromwell during the English Civil War. Campbell was appointed to the rank of Captain with a salary of 8 shillings a day.

In August 1691 King William III/II offered to pardon all the Highland clans who had taken up arms against him in the 1689 Jacobite uprising. These included the Glencoe MacDonalds. The pardon was conditional on their taking an oath of allegiance to him by 1 January 1692.
A number of clans failed to take the oath, and the Secretary of State for Scotland, Sir John Dalrymple, 1st Earl of Stair, decided to demonstrate his firm grip on the country by punishing one of them. Although some clans had made no effort at all to take it, the Glen Coe MacDonalds, who had tried to take the oath but failed to do so on time, were selected to set this example because they were unpopular, they had no stronghold, and they lived in a valley whose exits could easily be blocked.

Captain Robert Campbell had no reason to like the MacDonalds. The Campbells and the MacDonald’s had shared centuries of enmity and it had been the latter’s close associates who had destroyed his last holdings in Glen Lyon. And as an elderly, drunk, bankrupt who was heavily dependant on his army salary, he was unlikely to question his orders. He must, therefore, have seemed the ideal man to command the troops billeted with the MacDonalds in order to massacre them.

And, deliberately or not, by placing a Campbell in charge of the 130 troops (who also included 11 more Campbells) who committed the atrocity, Colonel Hill helped generate the enduring myth that the Massacre of Glencoe was simply another episode in generations of clan feuding.
Although the outcry following the massacre led to the resignation of the Secretary of State for Scotland, Sir John Dalrymple, it had no effect on the careers of any of the army officers involved. Captain Robert Campbell later accompanied the Earl of Argyll’s Regiment of Foot to fight in Flanders, where it was part of the army defeated by the French at the Battle of Diksmuide in 1696. Later in the same year, Campbell died, drunk and in poverty, in a gutter in Bruges.

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Public Poetry. Robert Burns.

Address to the Devil.

O Prince, O chief of many throned pow’rs!
That led th’ embattled seraphim to war!
(Milton, Paradise Lost)
O thou! whatever title suit thee,—
Auld Hornie, Satan, Nick, or Clootie!
Wha in yon cavern, grim an’ sootie,
       Clos’d under hatches,
Spairges about the brunstane cootie
       To scaud poor wretches!

Hear me, Auld Hangie, for a wee,
An’ let poor damned bodies be;
I’m sure sma’ pleasure it can gie,
       E’en to a deil,
To skelp an’ scaud poor dogs like me,
       An’ hear us squeel!

Great is thy pow’r, an’ great thy fame;
Far ken’d an’ noted is thy name;
An’ tho’ yon lowin heugh’s thy hame,
       Thou travels far;
An’ faith! thou’s neither lag nor lame,
       Nor blate nor scaur.

Whyles, ranging like a roarin lion,
For prey a’ holes an’ corners tryin;
Whyles, on the strong-wing’d tempest flyin,
       Tirlin’ the kirks;
Whyles, in the human bosom pryin,
       Unseen thou lurks.

I’ve heard my rev’rend graunie say,
In lanely glens ye like to stray;
Or whare auld ruin’d castles gray
       Nod to the moon,
Ye fright the nightly wand’rer’s way
       Wi’ eldritch croon.

When twilight did my graunie summon
To say her pray’rs, douce honest woman!
Aft yont the dike she’s heard you bummin,
       Wi’ eerie drone;
Or, rustlin thro’ the boortrees comin,
       Wi’ heavy groan.

Ae dreary, windy, winter night,
The stars shot down wi’ sklentin light,
Wi’ you mysel I gat a fright,
       Ayont the lough;
Ye like a rash-buss stood in sight,
       Wi’ waving sugh.

The cudgel in my nieve did shake,
Each bristl’d hair stood like a stake,
When wi’ an eldritch, stoor “Quaick, quaick,”
       Amang the springs,
Awa ye squatter’d like a drake,
       On whistling wings.

Let warlocks grim an’ wither’d hags
Tell how wi’ you on ragweed nags
They skim the muirs an’ dizzy crags
       Wi’ wicked speed;
And in kirk-yards renew their leagues,
       Owre howket dead.

Thence, countra wives wi’ toil an’ pain
May plunge an’ plunge the kirn in vain;
For oh! the yellow treasure’s taen
       By witchin skill;
An’ dawtet, twal-pint hawkie’s gaen
       As yell’s the bill.

Thence, mystic knots mak great abuse,
On young guidmen, fond, keen, an’ croose;
When the best wark-lume i’ the house,
       By cantraip wit,
Is instant made no worth a louse,
       Just at the bit.

When thowes dissolve the snawy hoord,
An’ float the jinglin icy-boord,
Then water-kelpies haunt the foord
       By your direction,
An’ nighted trav’lers are allur’d
       To their destruction.

And aft your moss-traversing spunkies
Decoy the wight that late an drunk is:
The bleezin, curst, mischievous monkeys
       Delude his eyes,
Till in some miry slough he sunk is,
       Ne’er mair to rise.

When Masons’ mystic word an grip
In storms an’ tempests raise you up,
Some cock or cat your rage maun stop,
       Or, strange to tell!
The youngest brither ye wad whip
       Aff straught to hell!

Lang syne, in Eden’d bonie yard,
When youthfu’ lovers first were pair’d,
An all the soul of love they shar’d,
       The raptur’d hour,
Sweet on the fragrant flow’ry swaird,
       In shady bow’r;

Then you, ye auld snick-drawin dog!
Ye cam to Paradise incog,
And play’d on man a cursed brogue,
       (Black be your fa’!)
An gied the infant warld a shog,
       Maist ruin’d a’.

D’ye mind that day, when in a bizz,
Wi’ reeket duds an reestet gizz,
Ye did present your smoutie phiz
       Mang better folk,
An’ sklented on the man of Uz
       Your spitefu’ joke?

An’ how ye gat him i’ your thrall,
An’ brak him out o’ house and hal’,
While scabs and blotches did him gall,
       Wi’ bitter claw,
An’ lows’d his ill-tongued, wicked scaul,
       Was warst ava?

But a’ your doings to rehearse,
Your wily snares an’ fechtin fierce,
Sin’ that day Michael did you pierce,
       Down to this time,
Wad ding a Lallan tongue, or Erse,
       In prose or rhyme.

An’ now, Auld Cloots, I ken ye’re thinkin,
A certain Bardie’s rantin, drinkin,
Some luckless hour will send him linkin,
       To your black pit;
But faith! he’ll turn a corner jinkin,
       An’ cheat you yet.

But fare you weel, Auld Nickie-ben!
O wad ye tak a thought an’ men’!
Ye aiblins might—I dinna ken—
       Still hae a stake:
I’m wae to think upo’ yon den,
       Ev’n for your sake!

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My Poetry. The Mask.

I beg for you to try and see,
the face behind the mask on me,
It’s dark and eyeless, looking  cold,
But on my face, is proud and bold,
Deserted of feeling, unable to read,
The desire of ambition, harmony or greed,
Where you to take this mask of mine,
And place it on an empty shrine,
The face behind would depreciate,
But the mask lives on, to re-create.
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Famous Scots. Alexander Graham Bell.

Alexander Graham Bell (/ˈɡreɪ.əm/; March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born[N 2] inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He also co-founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in 1885.

Bell’s father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell’s life’s work. His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone, on March 7, 1876.[N 3] Bell considered his invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.[N 4]

Many other inventions marked Bell’s later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoils, and aeronautics. Although Bell was not one of the 33 founders of the National Geographic Society, he had a strong influence on the magazine while serving as the second president from January 7, 1898, until 1903.

Beyond his scientific work, Bell was an advocate of compulsory sterilization and served as chairman or president of several eugenics organizations.

First invention

As a child, young Bell displayed a curiosity about his world; he gathered botanical specimens and ran experiments at an early age. His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill. At the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine that was put into operation at the mill and used steadily for a number of years. In return, Ben’s father John Herdman gave both boys the run of a small workshop in which to “invent”.

From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art, poetry, and music that was encouraged by his mother. With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family’s pianist. Despite being normally quiet and introspective, he revelled in mimicry and “voice tricks” akin to ventriloquism that continually entertained family guests during their occasional visits. Bell was also deeply affected by his mother’s gradual deafness (she began to lose her hearing when he was 12), and learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour. He also developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother’s forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity. Bell’s preoccupation with his mother’s deafness led him to study acoustics.

His family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin, and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists. His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist (1860), which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone. In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes (as they were then known) to articulate words and read other people’s lip movements to decipher meaning. Bell’s father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound. Bell became so proficient that he became a part of his father’s public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities. He could decipher Visible Speech representing virtually every language, including Latin, Scottish Gaelic, and even Sanskrit, accurately reciting written tracts without any prior knowledge of their pronunciation.


As a young child, Bell, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father. At an early age, he was enrolled at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, Scotland, which he left at the age of 15, having completed only the first four forms. His school record was undistinguished, marked by absenteeism and lacklustre grades. His main interest remained in the sciences, especially biology, while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his father. Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with his grandfather, Alexander Bell, on Harrington Square. During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study. The elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak clearly and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself. At the age of 16, Bell secured a position as a “pupil-teacher” of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy at Elgin, Moray, Scotland. Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and £10 per session. The following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh; joining his older brother Melville who had enrolled there the previous year. In 1868, not long before he departed for Canada with his family, Bell completed his matriculation exams and was accepted for admission to University College London.

First experiments with sound

His father encouraged Bell’s interest in speech and, in 1863, took his sons to see a unique automaton developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen. The rudimentary “mechanical man” simulated a human voice. Bell was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen’s book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head. Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a “big prize” if they were successful. While his brother constructed the throat and larynx, Bell tackled the more difficult task of recreating a realistic skull. His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could “speak”, albeit only a few words. The boys would carefully adjust the “lips” and when a bellows forced air through the windpipe, a very recognizable “Mama” ensued, to the delight of neighbours who came to see the Bell invention.

Intrigued by the results of the automaton, Bell continued to experiment with a live subject, the family’s Skye Terrier, “Trouve”. After he taught it to growl continuously, Bell would reach into its mouth and manipulate the dog’s lips and vocal cords to produce a crude-sounding “Ow ah oo ga ma ma”. With little convincing, visitors believed his dog could articulate “How are you, grandmama?” Indicative of his playful nature, his experiments convinced onlookers that they saw a “talking dog”. These initial forays into experimentation with sound led Bell to undertake his first serious work on the transmission of sound, using tuning forks to explore resonance.

At age 19, Bell wrote a report on his work and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellis, a colleague of his father (who would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion). Ellis immediately wrote back indicating that the experiments were similar to existing work in Germany, and also lent Bell a copy of Hermann von Helmholtz’s work, The Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music.

Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar tuning fork “contraption”, Bell pored over the German scientist’s book. Working from his own erroneous mistranslation of a French edition, Bell fortuitously then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, reporting: “Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means, so could consonants, so could articulate speech.” He also later remarked: “I thought that Helmholtz had done it … and that my failure was due only to my ignorance of electricity. It was a valuable blunder … If I had been able to read German in those days, I might never have commenced my experiments!”[N 6]

Family tragedy

In 1865, when the Bell family moved to London, Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment. Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend. Throughout late 1867, his health faltered mainly through exhaustion. His younger brother, Edward “Ted,” was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis. While Bell recovered (by then referring to himself in correspondence as “A. G. Bell”) and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath, England, his brother’s condition deteriorated. Edward would never recover. Upon his brother’s death, Bell returned home in 1867. His older brother Melville had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at University College London, Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family’s residence to studying.

Helping his father in Visible Speech demonstrations and lectures brought Bell to Susanna E. Hull’s private school for the deaf in South Kensington, London. His first two pupils were deaf-mute girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage. While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher. However, in May 1870, Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland. Bell’s parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly. Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,[N 7] conclude all of his brother’s affairs (Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp), and join his father and mother in setting out for the “New World”. Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, as he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him.

Main article: Bell Homestead National Historic Site

Melville House, the Bells’ first home in North America, now a National Historic Site of Canada
In 1870, 23-year-old Bell travelled with his parents and his brother’s widow, Caroline Margaret Ottaway, to Paris, Ontario, to stay with Thomas Henderson, a Baptist minister and family friend. The Bell family soon purchased a farm of 10.5 acres (42,000 m2) at Tutelo Heights (now called Tutela Heights), near Brantford, Ontario. The property consisted of an orchard, large farmhouse, stable, pigsty, hen-house, and a carriage house, which bordered the Grand River.[N 8]

At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house near to what he called his “dreaming place”, a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river. Despite his frail condition upon arriving in Canada, Bell found the climate and environs to his liking, and rapidly improved.[N 9] He continued his interest in the study of the human voice and when he discovered the Six Nations Reserve across the river at Onondaga, he learned the Mohawk language and translated its unwritten vocabulary into Visible Speech symbols. For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.[N 10]

After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz’s work with electricity and sound. He also modified a melodeon (a type of pump organ) so that it could transmit its music electrically over a distance. Once the family was settled in, both Bell and his father made plans to establish a teaching practice and in 1871, he accompanied his father to Montreal, where Melville was offered a position to teach his System of Visible Speech.

Work with the deaf

Bell, top right, providing pedagogical instruction to teachers at the Boston School for Deaf Mutes, 1871. Throughout his life, he referred to himself as “a teacher of the deaf”.
Bell’s father was invited by Sarah Fuller, principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes (which continues today as the public Horace Mann School for the Deaf), in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller’s instructors, but he declined the post in favour of his son. Travelling to Boston in April 1871, Bell proved successful in training the school’s instructors. He was subsequently asked to repeat the programme at the American Asylum for Deaf-mutes in Hartford, Connecticut, and the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts.

Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his “harmonic telegraph”.[N 11] The basic concept behind his device was that messages could be sent through a single wire if each message was transmitted at a different pitch, but work on both the transmitter and receiver was needed.

Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher. His father helped him set up his private practice by contacting Gardiner Greene Hubbard, the president of the Clarke School for the Deaf for a recommendation. Teaching his father’s system, in October 1872, Alexander Bell opened his “School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech” in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils, with his first class numbering 30 students. While he was working as a private tutor, one of his pupils was Helen Keller, who came to him as a young child unable to see, hear, or speak. She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that “inhuman silence which separates and estranges”. In 1893, Keller performed the sod-breaking ceremony for the construction of Bell’s new Volta Bureau, dedicated to “the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf”.

Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that should be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort, they could teach the deaf to read lips and speak (known as oralism)) and not use sign language, thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded. Owing to his efforts to suppress the teaching of sign language, Bell is often viewed negatively by those embracing Deaf culture.

Continuing experimentation

In 1872, Bell became professor of Vocal Physiology and Elocution at the Boston University School of Oratory. During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was “swept up” by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city. He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation. While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house. Keeping “night owl” hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment. Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover. Worse still, his health deteriorated as he suffered severe headaches. Returning to Boston in fall 1873, Bell made a far-reaching decision to concentrate on his experiments in sound.

Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old “Georgie” Sanders, deaf from birth, and 15-year-old Mabel Hubbard. Each pupil would play an important role in the next developments. George’s father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay in nearby Salem with Georgie’s grandmother, complete with a room to “experiment”. Although the offer was made by George’s mother and followed the year-long arrangement in 1872 where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell’s boarding house, it was clear that Mr. Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together, with free room and board thrown in. Mabel was a bright, attractive girl who was ten years Bell’s junior but became the object of his affection. Having lost her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,[N 12] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Bell’s benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.

By 1874, Bell’s initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston “laboratory” (a rented facility) and at his family home in Canada a big success.[N 13] While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a “phonautograph”, a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations. Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves. Bell also thought that multiple metal reeds tuned to different frequencies like a harp would be able to convert the undulating currents back into sound. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.

In 1874, telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton, had become “the nervous system of commerce”. Antonio Meucci sent a telephone model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives. When he asked for his materials to be returned, in 1874, he was told they had been lost. Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union. Meucci sued and was nearing victory—the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell—when the Florentine died in 1889. The legal action died with him. Orton had contracted with inventors Thomas Edison and Elisha Gray to find a way to send multiple telegraph messages on each telegraph line to avoid the great cost of constructing new lines. When Bell mentioned to Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders that he was working on a method of sending multiple tones on a telegraph wire using a multi-reed device, the two wealthy patrons began to financially support Bell’s experiments. Patent matters would be handled by Hubbard’s patent attorney, Anthony Pollok.

In March 1875, Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry, who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution, and asked Henry’s advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph. Henry replied that Bell had “the germ of a great invention”. When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, “Get it!” That declaration greatly encouraged Bell to keep trying, even though he did not have the equipment needed to continue his experiments, nor the ability to create a working model of his ideas. However, a chance meeting in 1874 between Bell and Thomas A. Watson, an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.

With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant,[N 14] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy. On June 2, 1875, Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech. That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the “gallows” sound-powered telephone, which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.

The race to the patent office.

Main article: Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy
In 1875, Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U.S. profits with his investors Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders, Bell requested that an associate in Ontario, George Brown, attempt to patent it in Britain, instructing his lawyers to apply for a patent in the U.S. only after they received word from Britain (Britain would issue patents only for discoveries not previously patented elsewhere).

Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone patent drawing, March 7, 1876
Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter. On February 14, 1876, Gray filed a caveat with the U.S. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter. That same morning, Bell’s lawyer filed Bell’s application with the patent office. There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell’s patent. Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February 26.

The master telephone patent, 174465, March 7, 1876
Bell’s patent 174,465, was issued to Bell on March 7, 1876, by the U.S. Patent Office. Bell’s patent covered “the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically … by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sound”[N 15] Bell returned to Boston the same day and the next day resumed work, drawing in his notebook a diagram similar to that in Gray’s patent caveat.

On March 10, 1876, three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray’s design. Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the sentence “Mr. Watson—Come here—I want to see you” into the liquid transmitter, Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.

Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray, Bell used Gray’s water transmitter design only after Bell’s patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment, to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible “articulate speech” (Bell’s words) could be electrically transmitted. After March 1876, Bell focused on improving the electromagnetic telephone and never used Gray’s liquid transmitter in public demonstrations or commercial use.

The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell’s patent application. He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray’s caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water. He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, 1875, long before Elisha Gray described the water device. In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell’s priority, the examiner approved Bell’s patent on March 3, 1876. Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.

The patent examiner, Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell’s lawyer, Marcellus Bailey, with whom he had served in the Civil War. He claimed he showed Gray’s patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed (after Bell arrived in Washington D.C. from Boston) that he showed Gray’s caveat to Bell and that Bell paid him $100 (equivalent to $2,300 in 2019). Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details. Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money.

Later developments.

An actor playing Bell in a 1926 film holds Bell’s first telephone transmitter
On March 10, 1876 Bell used “the instrument” in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot. He said, “Mr. Watson, come here – I want to see you” and Watson soon appeared at his side.

Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone. On August 3, 1876, from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles (six kilometres) distant, indicating that he was ready. He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel. This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, 1876, was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles (thirteen kilometres) distant. This test was said by many sources to be the “world’s first long-distance call”. The final test certainly proved that the telephone could work over long distances, at least as a one-way call.

The first two-way (reciprocal) conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston (roughly 2.5 miles) on October 9, 1876. During that conversation, Bell was on Kilby Street in Boston and Watson was at the offices of the Walworth Manufacturing Company.

Bell at the opening of the long-distance line from New York to Chicago in 1892
Bell and his partners, Hubbard and Sanders, offered to sell the patent outright to Western Union for $100,000. The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. Two years later, he told colleagues that if he could get the patent for $25 million he would consider it a bargain. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent. Bell’s investors would become millionaires while he fared well from residuals and at one point had assets of nearly one million dollars.

Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public. A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention. Influential visitors to the exhibition included Emperor Pedro II of Brazil. One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson (later, Lord Kelvin), a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as “the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph”.

On January 14, 1878, at Osborne House, on the Isle of Wight, Bell demonstrated the device to Queen Victoria, placing calls to Cowes, Southampton and London. These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. The queen considered the process to be “quite extraordinary” although the sound was “rather faint”. She later asked to buy the equipment that was used, but Bell offered to make “a set of telephones” specifically for her.

The Bell Telephone Company was created in 1877, and by 1886, more than 150,000 people in the U.S. owned telephones. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever. In 1879, the Bell company acquired Edison’s patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.

Emperor Pedro II of Brazil was the first person to buy stock in Bell’s company, the Bell Telephone Company. One of the first telephones in a private residence was installed in his palace in Petrópolis, his summer retreat forty miles (sixty-four kilometres) from Rio de Janeiro.

In January 1915, Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. Calling from the AT&T head office at 15 Dey Street in New York City, Bell was heard by Thomas Watson at 333 Grant Avenue in San Francisco. The New York Times reported:

On October 9, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, 1915], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,400-mile wire between New York and San Francisco. Dr. Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent.


As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone. Over a period of 18 years, the Bell Telephone Company faced 587 court challenges to its patents, including five that went to the U.S. Supreme Court, but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage. Bell’s laboratory notes and family letters were the key to establishing a long lineage to his experiments. The Bell company lawyers successfully fought off myriad lawsuits generated initially around the challenges by Elisha Gray and Amos Dolbear. In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.

On January 13, 1887, the U.S. Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided. By the time that the trial wound its way through nine years of legal battles, the U.S. prosecuting attorney had died and the two Bell patents (No. 174,465 dated March 7, 1876, and No. 186,787 dated January 30, 1877) were no longer in effect, although the presiding judges agreed to continue the proceedings due to the case’s importance as a precedent. With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest (on both sides) arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, 1897, leaving several issues undecided on the merits.

During a deposition filed for the 1887 trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in 1834. In 1886, in the first of three cases in which he was involved,[N 16] Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hope of establishing his invention’s priority. Meucci’s testimony in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions, as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph (ADT) of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in 1901. Meucci’s work, like many other inventors of the period, was based on earlier acoustic principles and despite evidence of earlier experiments, the final case involving Meucci was eventually dropped upon Meucci’s death. However, due to the efforts of Congressman Vito Fossella, the U.S. House of Representatives on June 11, 2002, stated that Meucci’s “work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged”. This did not put an end to the still-contentious issue. Some modern scholars do not agree with the claims that Bell’s work on the telephone was influenced by Meucci’s inventions.[N 17]

The value of the Bell patent was acknowledged throughout the world, and patent applications were made in most major countries, but when Bell delayed the German patent application, the electrical firm of Siemens & Halske (S&H) set up a rival manufacturer of Bell telephones under their own patent. The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties. The establishment of the International Bell Telephone Company in Brussels, Belgium in 1880, as well as a series of agreements in other countries eventually consolidated a global telephone operation. The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.[N 18]

Further information: The Telephone Cases
Family life

Further information: Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia
A distinguished bearded man, his young elegant wife next to him and their two young daughters poise for a formal portrait
Alexander Graham Bell, his wife Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, and their daughters Elsie (left) and Marian ca. 1885
A three-story gray mansion, with a covered front entrance
The Brodhead–Bell mansion, the Bell family residence in Washington, D.C., from 1882 to 1889
On July 11, 1877, a few days after the Bell Telephone Company was established, Bell married Mabel Hubbard (1857–1923) at the Hubbard estate in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1,487 of his 1,497 shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company. Shortly thereafter, the newlyweds embarked on a year-long honeymoon in Europe. During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a “working holiday”. The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Bell waited until he was more financially secure before marrying. Although the telephone appeared to be an “instant” success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell’s main sources of income were from lectures until after 1897. One unusual request exacted by his fiancée was that he use “Alec” rather than the family’s earlier familiar name of “Aleck”. From 1876, he would sign his name “Alec Bell”. They had four children:

Elsie May Bell (1878–1964) who married Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor of National Geographic fame.
Marian Hubbard Bell (1880–1962) who was referred to as “Daisy”. Married David Fairchild.[N 19]
Two sons who died in infancy (Edward in 1881 and Robert in 1883).
The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until 1880 when Bell’s father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D.C.; in 1882 he bought a home in the same city for Bell’s family, so they could be with him while he attended to the numerous court cases involving patent disputes.

Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until 1882 when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. In 1915, he characterized his status as: “I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries.” Despite this declaration, Bell has been proudly claimed as a “native son” by all three countries he resided in: the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.

By 1885, a new summer retreat was contemplated. That summer, the Bells had a vacation on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, spending time at the small village of Baddeck. Returning in 1886, Bell started building an estate on a point across from Baddeck, overlooking Bras d’Or Lake. By 1889, a large house, christened The Lodge was completed and two years later, a larger complex of buildings, including a new laboratory, were begun that the Bells would name Beinn Bhreagh (Gaelic: Beautiful Mountain) after Bell’s ancestral Scottish highlands.[N 20] Bell also built the Bell Boatyard on the estate, employing up to 40 people building experimental craft as well as wartime lifeboats and workboats for the Royal Canadian Navy and pleasure craft for the Bell family. He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d’Or Lake, ordering additional vessels from the H.W. Embree and Sons boatyard in Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia. In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D.C., where he and his family initially resided for most of the year, and Beinn Bhreagh, where they spent increasing amounts of time.

Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened. Both Mabel and Bell became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as “their own”.[N 21] The Bells were still in residence at Beinn Bhreagh when the Halifax Explosion occurred on December 6, 1917. Mabel and Bell mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.

Later inventions

Alexander Graham Bell in his later years
Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied. According to one of his biographers, Charlotte Gray, Bell’s work ranged “unfettered across the scientific landscape” and he often went to bed voraciously reading the Encyclopædia Britannica, scouring it for new areas of interest. The range of Bell’s inventive genius is represented only in part by the 18 patents granted in his name alone and the 12 he shared with his collaborators. These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for “hydroairplanes”, and two for selenium cells. Bell’s inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.

Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound. Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype. They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder, the hard disc and floppy disc drive, and other magnetic media.

Bell’s own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution. Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere. In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.

Main article: Photophone

Photophone receiver, one half of Bell’s wireless optical communication system, ca. 1880
Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone, which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light. Both men later became full associates in the Volta Laboratory Association.

On June 21, 1880, Bell’s assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.C., to Bell at the window of his laboratory, some 700 feet (213 m) away, 19 years before the first voice radio transmissions.

Bell believed the photophone’s principles were his life’s “greatest achievement”, telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was “the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone”. The photophone was a precursor to the fiber-optic communication systems which achieved popular worldwide usage in the 1980s. Its master patent was issued in December 1880, many decades before the photophone’s principles came into popular use.

Metal detector

File:Telephone Inventor’s Voice Heard in Restored Recording « Science World.theora.ogv
Bell’s voice, from a Volta Laboratory recording in 1885. Restored by the Smithsonian in 2013.
Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a metal detector through the use of an induction balance, after the shooting of U.S. President James A. Garfield in 1881. According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find Guiteau’s bullet, partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static. Garfield’s surgeons, led by self-appointed chief physician Doctor Willard Bliss, were skeptical of the device, and ignored Bell’s requests to move the President to a bed not fitted with metal springs. Alternatively, although Bell had detected a slight sound on his first test, the bullet may have been lodged too deeply to be detected by the crude apparatus.

Bell’s own detailed account, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1882, differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet. Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell “proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning … to ascertain from the surgeons whether they were perfectly sure that all metal had been removed from the neighborhood of the bed. It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires. Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes. The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect.” In a footnote, Bell adds, “The death of President Garfield and the subsequent post-mortem examination, however, proved that the bullet was at too great a distance from the surface to have affected our apparatus.”

Main article: HD-4

Bell HD-4 on a test run ca. 1919
The March 1906 Scientific American article by American pioneer William E. Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement. Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. Bell and assistant Frederick W. “Casey” Baldwin began hydrofoil experimentation in the summer of 1908 as a possible aid to airplane takeoff from water. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.

During his world tour of 1910–11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag (Scottish Gaelic for little devil), the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil. The experimental boats were essentially proof-of-concept prototypes that culminated in the more substantial HD-4, powered by Renault engines. A top speed of 54 miles per hour (87 km/h) was achieved, with the hydrofoil exhibiting rapid acceleration, good stability, and steering, along with the ability to take waves without difficulty. In 1913, Dr. Bell hired Walter Pinaud, a Sydney yacht designer and builder as well as the proprietor of Pinaud’s Yacht Yard in Westmount, Nova Scotia, to work on the pontoons of the HD-4. Pinaud soon took over the boatyard at Bell Laboratories on Beinn Bhreagh, Bell’s estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia. Pinaud’s experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD-4. After the First World War, work began again on the HD-4. Bell’s report to the U.S. Navy permitted him to obtain two 350 horsepower (260 kilowatts) engines in July 1919. On September 9, 1919, the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of 70.86 miles per hour (114.04 kilometres per hour), a record which stood for ten years.

Main articles: Aerial Experiment Association and AEA Silver Dart

AEA Silver Dart ca. 1909
In 1891, Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek “young” help as Bell was at the age of 60.

In 1898, Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.[N 22] The tetrahedral wings were named Cygnet I, II, and III, and were flown both unmanned and manned (Cygnet I crashed during a flight carrying Selfridge) in the period from 1907 to 1912. Some of Bell’s kites are on display at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site.

Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA), officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October 1907 at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate. The AEA was headed by Bell and the founding members were four young men: American Glenn H. Curtiss, a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title “world’s fastest man”, having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere, and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge, an official observer from the U.S. Federal government and one of the few people in the army who believed that aviation was the future; Frederick W. Baldwin, the first Canadian and first British subject to pilot a public flight in Hammondsport, New York; and J. A. D. McCurdy–Baldwin and McCurdy being new engineering graduates from the University of Toronto.

The AEA’s work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing, framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine. On March 12, 1908, over Keuka Lake, the biplane lifted off on the first public flight in North America.[N 23][N 24] The innovations that were incorporated into this design included a cockpit enclosure and tail rudder (later variations on the original design would add ailerons as a means of control). One of the AEA’s inventions, a practical wingtip form of the aileron, was to become a standard component on all aircraft.[N 25] The White Wing and June Bug were to follow and by the end of 1908, over 150 flights without mishap had been accomplished. However, the AEA had depleted its initial reserves and only a $15,000 grant from Mrs. Bell allowed it to continue with experiments. Lt. Selfridge had also become the first person killed in a powered heavier-than-air flight in a crash of the Wright Flyer at Fort Myer, Virginia, on September 17, 1908.

Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart, embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines. On February 23, 1909, Bell was present as the Silver Dart flown by J. A. D. McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d’Or made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell had worried that the flight was too dangerous and had arranged for a doctor to be on hand. With the successful flight, the AEA disbanded and the Silver Dart would revert to Baldwin and McCurdy, who began the Canadian Aerodrome Company and would later demonstrate the aircraft to the Canadian Army.


Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States. In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on November 13, 1883 (the year of his election as a Member of the National Academy of Sciences), he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry. However, it was his hobby of livestock breeding which led to his appointment to biologist David Starr Jordan’s Committee on Eugenics, under the auspices of the American Breeders’ Association. The committee unequivocally extended the principle to humans. From 1912 until 1918, he was the chairman of the board of scientific advisers to the Eugenics Record Office associated with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, and regularly attended meetings. In 1921, he was the honorary president of the Second International Congress of Eugenics held under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York.[citation needed]

Legacy and honors
Main articles: Volta Laboratory and Bureau and Alexander Graham Bell honors and tributes

Bell statue by A. E. Cleeve Horne in front of the Bell Telephone Building of Brantford, Ontario, The Telephone City.[N 26] (Brantford Heritage Inventory, City of Brantford)
Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew. Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities to the point that the requests almost became burdensome. During his life, he also received dozens of major awards, medals, and other tributes. These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, including the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in Brantford, Ontario, in 1917.

A quote by Alexander Graham Bell engraved in the stone wall within the Peace Chapel of the International Peace Garden (in Manitoba Canada and North Dakota, USA).
A large number of Bell’s writings, personal correspondence, notebooks, papers, and other documents reside in both the United States Library of Congress Manuscript Division (as the Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers), and at the Alexander Graham Bell Institute, Cape Breton University, Nova Scotia; major portions of which are available for online viewing.

A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies in the United States and Canada. Among the major sites are:

The Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site, maintained by Parks Canada, which incorporates the Alexander Graham Bell Museum, in Baddeck, Nova Scotia, close to the Bell estate Beinn Bhreagh
The Bell Homestead National Historic Site, includes the Bell family home, “Melville House”, and farm overlooking Brantford, Ontario and the Grand River. It was their first home in North America;
Canada’s first telephone company building, the “Henderson Home” of the late 1870s, a predecessor of the Bell Telephone Company of Canada (officially chartered in 1880). In 1969, the building was carefully moved to the historic Bell Homestead National Historic Site in Brantford, Ontario, and was refurbished to become a telephone museum. The Bell Homestead, the Henderson Home telephone museum, and the National Historic Site’s reception centre are all maintained by the Bell Homestead Society;
The Alexander Graham Bell Memorial Park, which features a broad neoclassical monument built in 1917 by public subscription. The monument depicts mankind’s ability to span the globe through telecommunications;
The Alexander Graham Bell Museum (opened in 1956), part of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site which was completed in 1978 in Baddeck, Nova Scotia. Many of the museum’s artifacts were donated by Bell’s daughters;

The Bell Museum, Cape Breton, part of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site
In 1880, Bell received the Volta Prize with a purse of 50,000 French francs (approximately US$270,000 in today’s dollars) for the invention of the telephone from the French government. Among the luminaries who judged were Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas, fils.[better source needed] The Volta Prize was conceived by Napoleon III in 1852, and named in honor of Alessandro Volta, with Bell becoming the second recipient of the grand prize in its history. Since Bell was becoming increasingly affluent, he used his prize money to create endowment funds (the ‘Volta Fund’) and institutions in and around the United States capital of Washington, D.C.. These included the prestigious ‘Volta Laboratory Association’ (1880), also known as the Volta Laboratory and as the ‘Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory’, and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau (1887) as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year it improved Edison’s phonograph by substituting wax for tinfoil as the recording medium and incising the recording rather than indenting it, key upgrades that Edison himself later adopted. The laboratory was also the site where he and his associate invented his “proudest achievement”, “the photophone”, the “optical telephone” which presaged fibre optical telecommunications while the Volta Bureau would later evolve into the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (the AG Bell), a leading center for the research and pedagogy of deafness.

In partnership with Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Bell helped establish the publication Science during the early 1880s. In 1898, Bell was elected as the second president of the National Geographic Society, serving until 1903, and was primarily responsible for the extensive use of illustrations, including photography, in the magazine. He also served for many years as a Regent of the Smithsonian Institution (1898–1922). The French government conferred on him the decoration of the Légion d’honneur (Legion of Honor); the Royal Society of Arts in London awarded him the Albert Medal in 1902; the University of Würzburg, Bavaria, granted him a PhD, and he was awarded the Franklin Institute’s Elliott Cresson Medal in 1912. He was one of the founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1884 and served as its president from 1891 to 1892. Bell was later awarded the AIEE’s Edison Medal in 1914 “For meritorious achievement in the invention of the telephone”.

The bel (B) and the smaller decibel (dB) are units of measurement of sound pressure level (SPL) invented by Bell Labs and named after him. [N 27] Since 1976, the IEEE’s Alexander Graham Bell Medal has been awarded to honor outstanding contributions in the field of telecommunications.

A.G. Bell issue of 1940
In 1936, the US Patent Office declared Bell first on its list of the country’s greatest inventors, leading to the US Post Office issuing a commemorative stamp honoring Bell in 1940 as part of its ‘Famous Americans Series’. The First Day of Issue ceremony was held on October 28 in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where Bell spent considerable time on research and working with the deaf. The Bell stamp became very popular and sold out in little time. The stamp became, and remains to this day, the most valuable one of the series.

The 150th anniversary of Bell’s birth in 1997 was marked by a special issue of commemorative £1 banknotes from the Royal Bank of Scotland. The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell’s face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell’s life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio wave signal; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics. Additionally, the Government of Canada honored Bell in 1997 with a C$100 gold coin, in tribute also to the 150th anniversary of his birth, and with a silver dollar coin in 2009 in honor of the 100th anniversary of flight in Canada. That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell’s tutelage, named the Silver Dart. Bell’s image, and also those of his many inventions have graced paper money, coinage, and postal stamps in numerous countries worldwide for many dozens of years.

Alexander Graham Bell was ranked 57th among the 100 Greatest Britons (2002) in an official BBC nationwide poll, and among the Top Ten Greatest Canadians (2004), and the 100 Greatest Americans (2005). In 2006, Bell was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history after having been listed in the National Library of Scotland’s ‘Scottish Science Hall of Fame’. Bell’s name is still widely known and used as part of the names of dozens of educational institutes, corporate namesakes, street and place names around the world.

Bell, an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, receiving an honorary Doctor of Laws degree (LL.D.) at the university in 1906
See also: Bell Telephone Memorial
Honorary degrees
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.
Alexander Graham Bell, who could not complete the university program of his youth, received at least a dozen honorary degrees from academic institutions, including eight honorary LL.D.s (Doctorate of Laws), two Ph.D.s, a D.Sc., and an M.D.:

Gallaudet College (then named National Deaf-Mute College) in Washington, D.C. (Ph.D.) in 1880
University of Würzburg in Würzburg, Bavaria (Ph.D.) in 1882
Heidelberg University in Heidelberg, Germany (M.D.) in 1886
Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts (LL.D.) in 1896
Illinois College, in Jacksonville, Illinois (LL.D.) in 1896, possibly 1881
Amherst College in Amherst, Massachusetts (LL.D.) in 1901
St. Andrew’s University in St Andrews, Scotland (LL.D) in 1902
University of Oxford in Oxford, England (D.Sc.) in 1906
University of Edinburgh in Edinburgh, Scotland (LL.D.) in 1906
George Washington University in Washington, D.C. (LL.D.) in 1913
Queen’s University at Kingston in Kingston, Ontario, Canada (LL.D.) in 1908
Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire (LL.D.) in 1913, possibly 1914
Portrayal in film and television
The 1939 film The Story of Alexander Graham Bell was based on his life and works.
The 1992 film The Sound and the Silence was a TV film.
Biography aired an episode Alexander Graham Bell: Voice of Invention on August 6, 1996.
Eyewitness No. 90 A Great Inventor Is Remembered, a 1957 NFB short about Bell.


Bell died of complications arising from diabetes on August 2, 1922, at his private estate in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, at age 75. Bell had also been afflicted with pernicious anemia. His last view of the land he had inhabited was by moonlight on his mountain estate at 2:00 a.m.[N 28][N 29] While tending to him after his long illness, Mabel, his wife, whispered, “Don’t leave me.” By way of reply, Bell signed “no…”, lost consciousness, and died shortly after.

On learning of Bell’s death, the Canadian Prime Minister, Mackenzie King, cabled Mrs. Bell, saying:

My colleagues in the Government join with me in expressing to you our sense of the world’s loss in the death of your distinguished husband. It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history. On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy.

Bell’s coffin was constructed of Beinn Bhreagh pine by his laboratory staff, lined with the same red silk fabric used in his tetrahedral kite experiments. To help celebrate his life, his wife asked guests not to wear black (the traditional funeral color) while attending his service, during which soloist Jean MacDonald sang a verse of Robert Louis Stevenson’s “Requiem”:

Under a wide and starry sky,
Dig the grave and let me lie.
Glad did I live and gladly die
And I laid me down with a will.

Upon the conclusion of Bell’s funeral, “every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance”.

Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate where he had resided increasingly for the last 35 years of his life, overlooking Bras d’Or Lake. He was survived by his wife Mabel, his two daughters, Elsie May and Marian, and nine of his grandchildren.

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Another episode of the Scottish lad. in comic form.

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The Broons.(puzzler)

Another episode of the Scottish family. and their adventures.

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Scottish Foods-Drinks.The Haggis

This poem was written by ROBERT BURNS to celebrate his appreciation of the Haggis. As a result, Burns and Haggis have been forever linked. This particular poem is always the first item on the program of Burns’ suppers. The haggis is generally carried in on a silver salver at the start of the proceedings. As it is brought to the table a piper plays a suitable, rousing accompaniment. One of the invited artistes then recites the poem before the theatrical cutting of the haggis with the ceremonial knife.

Address to a Haggis

Fair fa’ your honest, sonsie face,
Great Chieftain o’ the Puddin-race!
Aboon them a’ ye tak your place,
Painch, tripe, or thairm:
Weel are ye wordy of a 
As lang ‘s my arm.

The groaning trencher there ye fill,
Your hurdies like a distant hill,
pin wad help to mend a mill
In time o’ need,
While thro’ your pores the dews distil
Like amber bead.

His knife see Rustic-labour dight,
An’ cut ye up wi’ ready slight,
Trenching your gushing entrails bright,
Like onie ditch;
And then, O what a glorious sight,
Warm-reekin, rich!

Then, horn for horn, they stretch an’ strive:
Deil tak the hindmost, on they drive,
Till a’ their weel-swall’d kytes belyve
Are bent like drums;
Then auld Guidman, maist like to rive,
Bethankit hums.

Is there that owre his French ragout,
olio that wad staw a sow,
fricassee wad mak her spew
Wi’ perfect sconner,
Looks down wi’ sneering, scornfu’ view
On sic a dinner?

Poor devil! see him owre his trash,
As feckless as a wither’d rash,
His spindle shank a guid whip-lash,
His nieve a nit;
Thro’ bluidy flood or field to dash,
O how unfit!

But mark the Rustic, haggis-fed,
The trembling earth resounds his tread,
Clap in his walie nieve a blade,
He’ll make it whissle;
An’ legs, an’ arms, an’ heads will sned,
Like taps o’ thrissle.

Ye Pow’rs wha mak mankind your care,
And dish them out their bill o’ fare,
Auld Scotland wants nae skinking ware
That jaups in luggies;
But, if ye wish her gratefu’ prayer,
Gie her a 

Address to a Haggis Translation

Good luck to you and your honest, plump face,
Great chieftain of the sausage race!
Above them all you take your place,
Stomach, tripe, or intestines:
Well are you worthy of a grace
As long as my arm.
The groaning trencher there you fill,
Your buttocks like a distant hill,
Your pin would help to mend a mill
In time of need,
While through your pores the dews distill
Like amber bead.
His knife see rustic Labour wipe,
And cut you up with ready slight,
Trenching your gushing entrails bright,
Like any ditch;
And then, O what a glorious sight,
Warm steaming, rich!
Then spoon for spoon, the stretch and strive:
Devil take the hindmost, on they drive,
Till all their well swollen bellies by-and-by
Are bent like drums;
Then old head of the table, most like to burst,
‘The grace!’ hums.
Is there that over his French ragout,
Or olio that would sicken a sow,
Or fricassee would make her vomit
With perfect disgust,
Looks down with sneering, scornful view
On such a dinner?
Poor devil! see him over his trash,
As feeble as a withered rush,
His thin legs a good whip-lash,
His fist a nut;
Through bloody flood or field to dash,
O how unfit.
But mark the Rustic, haggis-fed,
The trembling earth resounds his tread,
Clap in his ample fist a blade,
He’ll make it whistle;
And legs, and arms, and heads will cut off
Like the heads of thistles.
You powers, who make mankind your care,
And dish them out their bill of fare,
Old Scotland wants no watery stuff,
That splashes in small wooden dishes;
But if you wish her grateful prayer,
Give her [Scotland] a Haggis!

Haggis Featured Pic Sq

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Scottish Towns-Cities. (Glasgow.)

Glasgow (/ˈɡlæzɡoʊ/, also UK: /ˈɡlɑːzɡoʊ, ˈɡlɑːsɡoʊ/,  US: /ˈɡlæsɡoʊ, ˈɡlæskoʊ/ Scots: Glesga [ˈɡlezɡə]; Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu [ˈkl̪ˠas̪əxu]) is the most populous city in Scotland, and the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Historically part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the local authority is Glasgow City Council. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country’s West Central Lowlands. It is the fifth most visited city in the UK.

Inhabitants of the city are referred to as “Glaswegians” or, informally, as “Weegies”. Glasgow is also known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language that is noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city.

Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland and tenth-largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city also grew as one of Great Britain’s main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.

With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded rapidly to become one of the world’s pre-eminent centres of chemicals, textiles and engineering; most notably in the shipbuilding and marine engineering industry, which produced many innovative and famous vessels. Glasgow was the “Second City of the British Empire” for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow’s population grew rapidly, reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938.  Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s resulted in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns, such as Cumbernauld, Livingston, East Kilbride and peripheral suburbs, followed by successive boundary changes. This process reduced the population of the City of Glasgow council area to an estimated 615,070, with 1,209,143 people living in the Greater Glasgow urban area.  The wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland’s population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2.

Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; and is also well known in the sporting world for football (particularly the Old Firm rivalry between Celtic and Rangers), rugby, athletics, tennis, golf and swimming.

Today, Glasgow has a diverse architectural scene, one of the key factors leading visitors to the city. From the city centre sprawling with grand Victorian buildings, to the many glass and metal edifices in the International Financial Services District to the serpentine terraces of blonde and red sandstone in the fashionable west end and the imposing mansions which make up Pollokshields, on the south side. The banks of the River Clyde are also dotted with a plethora of futuristic-looking buildings which include Riverside Museum, Glasgow Science Centre, the SSE Hydro and the SEC Armadillo.


The origin of the name ‘Glasgow’ is disputed.  The name is most likely Cumbric,  with a first element being glas, meaning “grey-green, grey-blue”, and the second *cöü, “hollow” (c.f. Welsh glas-cau),  giving a meaning of “green-hollow” or “(dear) green place”. The settlement probably had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures; the modern name appears for the first time in the Gaelic period (1116), as Glasgu. It is also recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern (also known as Saint Mungo), and procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years, Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, and making many converts. A large community developed around him and became known as Glasgu (often glossed as “the dear Green” or “dear green place”).


Origins and development.

The area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans later built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall, such as altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy, can be found at the Hunterian Museum today.

Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century. He established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, and in the following years, Glasgow became a religious centre. Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair reportedly began in the year 1190.  The first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town’s religious and educational status and landed wealth. Its early trade was in agriculture, brewing and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean.

Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants’ Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow’s substantial fortunes came from international trade, manufacturing and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, and then cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.

Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro’ the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was “the cleanest and beautifullest, and best-built city in Britain, London excepted”. At that time the city’s population was about 12,000, and the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution.

Trading port.

After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, and Glasgow became prominent as a hub of international trade to and from the Americas, especially in sugar, tobacco, cotton, and manufactured goods. The city’s Tobacco Lords created a deep water port at Port Glasgow on the Firth of Clyde, as the river within the city itself was then too shallow.  By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgow’s River Clyde, with over 47,000,000 lb (21,000 t) of tobacco being imported each year at its peak. At the time, Glasgow held a commercial importance as the city participated in the trade of sugar, tobacco and later cotton.


Shipping on the Clyde, Atkinson Grimshaw, 1881

The opening of the Monkland Canal and basin linking to the Forth and Clyde Canal at Port Dundas in 1795, facilitated access to the extensive iron-ore and coal mines in Lanarkshire. After extensive river engineering projects to dredge and deepen the River Clyde as far as Glasgow, shipbuilding became a major industry on the upper stretches of the river, pioneered by industrialists such as Robert Napier, John Elder, George Thomson, Sir William Pearce and Sir Alfred Yarrow.

The River Clyde also became an important source of inspiration for artists, such as John Atkinson Grimshaw, John Knox, James Kay, Sir Muirhead Bone, Robert Eadie, Stanley Spencer and L.S. Lowry, willing to depict the new industrial era and the modern world.

The University of Glasgow in the 1890s

Glasgow Bridge in the 1890s

Glasgow’s population had surpassed that of Edinburgh by 1821. The development of civic institutions included the City of Glasgow Police in 1800, one of the first municipal police forces in the world. Despite the crisis caused by the City of Glasgow Bank’s collapse in 1878, growth continued and by the end of the 19th century, it was one of the cities known as the “Second City of the Empire” and was producing more than half Britain’s tonnage of shipping and a quarter of all locomotives in the world.  In addition to its pre-eminence in shipbuilding, engineering, industrial machinery, bridge building, chemicals, explosives, coal and oil industries it developed as a major centre in textiles, garment-making, carpet manufacturing, leather processing, furniture-making, pottery, food, drink and cigarette making; printing and publishing. Shipping, banking, insurance and professional services expanded at the same time.

Glasgow became one of the first cities in Europe to reach a population of one million. The city’s new trades and sciences attracted new residents from across the Lowlands and the Highlands of Scotland, from Ireland and other parts of Britain and from Continental Europe.

During this period, the construction of many of the city’s greatest architectural masterpieces and most ambitious civil engineering projects, such as the Milngavie water treatment works, Glasgow Subway, Glasgow Corporation Tramways, City Chambers, Mitchell Library and Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum were being funded by its wealth. The city also held a series of International Exhibitions at Kelvingrove Park, in 1888, 1901 and 1911, with Britain’s last major International Exhibition, the Empire Exhibition, being subsequently held in 1938 at Bellahouston Park, which drew 13 million visitors.

George Square in 1966

The 20th century witnessed both decline and renewal in the city. After World War I, the city suffered from the impact of the Post–World War I recession and from the later Great Depression, this also led to a rise of radical socialism and the “Red Clydeside” movement. The city had recovered by the outbreak of World War II. The city saw aerial bombardment by the Luftwaffe, during the Clydebank Blitz, during the war, then grew through the post-war boom that lasted through the 1950s. By the 1960s, growth of the industry in countries like Japan and West Germany weakened the once pre-eminent position of many of the city’s industries.

As a result of this, Glasgow entered a lengthy period of relative economic decline and rapid de-industrialisation, leading to high unemployment, urban decay, population decline, welfare dependency and poor health for the city’s inhabitants. There were active attempts at the regeneration of the city when the Glasgow Corporation published its controversial Bruce Report, which set out a comprehensive series of initiatives aimed at turning around the decline of the city. The report led to a huge and radical programme of rebuilding and regeneration efforts that started in the mid-1950s and lasted into the late 1970s. This involved the mass demolition of the city’s infamous slums and their replacement with large suburban housing estates and tower blocks.


The city invested heavily in roads infrastructure, with an extensive system of arterial roads and motorways that bisected the central area. There are also accusations that the Scottish Office had deliberately attempted to undermine Glasgow’s economic and political influence in post-war Scotland by diverting inward investment in new industries to other regions during the Silicon Glen boom and creating the new towns of Cumbernauld, Glenrothes, Irvine, Livingston and East Kilbride, dispersed across the Scottish Lowlands to halve the city’s population base.

By the late 1980s, there had been a significant resurgence in Glasgow’s economic fortunes. The “Glasgow’s miles better” campaign, launched in 1983, and opening of the Burrell Collection in 1983 and Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre in 1985 facilitated Glasgow’s new role as a European centre for business services and finance and promoted an increase in tourism and inward investment. The latter continues to be bolstered by the legacy of the city’s Glasgow Garden Festival in 1988, it’s status as European City of Culture in 1990, and concerted attempts to diversify the city’s economy. However, it is the industrial heritage that serves as a key tourism enabler. Wider economic revival has persisted and the ongoing regeneration of inner-city areas, including the large-scale Clyde Waterfront Regeneration, has led to more affluent people moving back to live in the centre of Glasgow, fuelling allegations of gentrification. In 2008, the city was listed by Lonely Planet as one of the world’s top 10 tourist cities.

Despite Glasgow’s economic renaissance, the East End of the city remains the focus of social deprivation. A Glasgow Economic Audit report published in 2007 stated that the gap between prosperous and deprived areas of the city is widening. In 2006, 47% of Glasgow’s population lived in the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland, while the Centre for Social Justice reported 29.4% of the city’s working-age residents to be “economically inactive”. Although marginally behind the UK average, Glasgow still has a higher employment rate than Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester.

In 2008 the city was ranked at 43 for Personal Safety in the Mercer index of top 50 safest cities in the world. The Mercer report was specifically looking at Quality of Living, yet by 2011 within Glasgow, certain areas were (still) “failing to meet the Scottish Air Quality Objective levels for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10)”.


With the population growing, the first scheme to provide a public water supply was by the Glasgow Company in 1806. A second company was formed in 1812, and the two merged in 1838, but there was some dissatisfaction with the quality of the water supplied. The Gorbals Gravitation Water Company began supplying water to residents living to the south of the River Clyde in 1846, obtained from reservoirs, which gave 75,000 people a constant water supply, but others were not so fortunate, and some 4,000 died in an outbreak of cholera in 1848/1849. This led to the development of the Glasgow Corporation Water Works, with a project to raise the level of Loch Katrine and to convey clean water by gravity along a 26-mile (42 km) aqueduct to a holding reservoir at Milngavie, and then by pipes into the city. The project cost £980,000 and was opened by Queen Victoria in 1859.

The engineer for the project was John Frederick Bateman while James Morris Gale became the resident engineer for the city section of the project, and subsequently became Engineer in Chief for Glasgow Water Commissioners. He oversaw several improvements during his tenure, including a second aqueduct and further raising of water levels in Loch Katrine. Additional supplies were provided by Loch Arklet in 1902, by impounding the water and creating a tunnel to allow water to flow into Loch Katrine. A similar scheme to create a reservoir in Glen Finglas was authorised in 1903, but was deferred, and was not completed until 1965. Following the 2002 Glasgow floods, the waterborne parasite cryptosporidium was found in the reservoir at Milngavie, and so the new Milngavie water treatment works were built. It was opened by Queen Elizabeth in 2007, and won the 2007 Utility Industry Achievement Award, having been completed ahead of its time schedule and for £10 million below its budgeted cost.

Good health requires both clean water and effective removal of sewage. The Caledonian Railway rebuilt many of the sewers, as part of a deal to allow them to tunnel under the city, and sewage treatment works were opened at Dalmarnoch in 1894, Dalmuir in 1904 and Sheildhall in 1910. The works experimented to find better ways to treat sewage, and a number of experimental filters were constructed until a full activated sludge plant was built between 1962 and 1968 at a cost of £4 million. Treated sludge was dumped at sea, and Glasgow Corporation owned six sludge ships between 1904 and 1998 when the EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive ended the practice. The sewerage infrastructure was improved significantly in 2017, with the completion of a tunnel 3.1 miles (5.0 km) long, which provides 20 million imperial gallons (90 Ml) of stormwater storage. It will reduce the risk of flooding and the likelihood that sewage will overflow into the Clyde during storms. Since 2002, clean water provision and sewerage have been the responsibility of Scottish Water.


The coat of arms of the City of Glasgow

Adopted 1866
Crest Saint Mungo
Supporters Two salmon, bearing rings
Motto Let Glasgow Flourish by the preaching of Your word, and the praising of Your name.

The coat of arms of the City of Glasgow was granted to the royal burgh by Lord Lyon on 25 October 1866. It incorporates a number of symbols and emblems associated with the life of Glasgow’s patron saint, Mungo, which had been used on official seals prior to that date. The emblems represent miracles supposed to have been performed by Mungo and are listed in the traditional rhyme:

Here’s the bird that never flew

Here’s the tree that never grew

Here’s the bell that never rang

Here’s the fish that never swam

St Mungo is also said to have preached a sermon containing the words Lord, Let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the word and the praising of thy name. This was abbreviated to “Let Glasgow Flourish” and adopted as the city’s motto.

In 1450, John Stewart, the first Lord Provost of Glasgow, left an endowment so that a “St Mungo’s Bell” could be made and tolled throughout the city so that the citizens would pray for his soul. A new bell was purchased by the magistrates in 1641 and that bell is still on display in the People’s Palace Museum, near Glasgow Green.

The supporters are two salmon-bearing rings, and the crest is a half-length figure of Saint Mungo. He wears a bishop’s mitre and liturgical vestments and has his hand raised in “the act of benediction”. The original 1866 grant placed the crest atop a helm, but this was removed in subsequent grants. The current version (1996) has a gold mural crown between the shield and the crest. This form of coronet, resembling an embattled city wall, was allowed to the four area councils with city status.

The arms were re-matriculated by the City of Glasgow District Council on 6 February 1975, and by the present area council on 25 March 1996. The only change made on each occasion was in the type of coronet over the arms.

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Kings-Queens of Scotland part 1

Hi folks, here is some more History of Scotland with the KINGS AND QUEENS.




This page covers all the kings and queens of Scotland in sequence up to the end of the 13th century. Part 2 covers from Robert the Bruce to Union of the Parliaments in 1707. The dates shown beside each entry relate to the years in which they reigned (although in the early years historians are sometimes uncertain of the precise dates). There is also a further page showing a chronology of all the kings and queens of Scotland, England, United Kingdom and France.

Following the final withdrawal of the Romans from Scotland in the 4th century, there were a number of tribal groupings whose boundaries changed over the centuries. In the north, the Picts covered the Highlands and parts of the Lowlands as far as Angus, Fife and Stirling. Although little is known of the Picts and apart from late lists of kings written in Latin, they left no written record. The earliest king who is more than just a name on a list is Bridei in the 6th century who was a son of the Welsh king Maelcon. Bridei won a victory over Gabran, the most powerful of the Scots in Dalriada which was roughly where Argyllshire is now. Bridei was the first Pictish king to show an interest in Christianity and he met St Columba at his power base near Inverness. South of the Picts and Scots was the kingdom of Strathclyde, centred on Dumbarton Rock. To the east, in Lothian and around present-day Edinburgh were the Gododdin, who spoke a form of early Welsh language. They were eventually overwhelmed by the Northumbrians. In the south-west was the kingdom of Rheged on both sides of the Solway Firth.
Kenneth mac Alpin was the first king to unite the kingdoms of Dalriada in the west and the Picts and as such is regarded as the first king of Scotland.

Kenneth I (843-858)


Kenneth mac Alpin or Kenneth, son of Alpin, was 35th king of Dalriada. By inheritance (his grandmother was a Pict) and by conquest, he also became king of the Picts in 843 and by 858 ruled as far as the river Tweed (near the current English border). One of his daughters married the King of Strathclyde and their son became King Eochaid (below). On his death in 858, Kenneth’s brother became King Donald I and his cousins later became Kings Constantine I and King Aed.

Also a son of Alpin, Donald was described at the time as “the wanton son of the foreign woman”. He extended Dalriadic law into Pictland and died of natural causes near Scone, Perthshire.

Possibly a son of King Kenneth I, Constantine faced a number of Viking invasions and was killed in a battle fighting the Danes.

Another son of Kenneth I and brother of Constantine I, he was killed by Giric, a son of Donald I.

Grandson of Kenneth I, whose daughter married Run, King of Strathclyde and gave birth to Eochaid, thus eventually extending further the kingdom of Alba. He was deposed shortly before his death.



Donald II (889-900

Donald II was the first monarch to be called “Ri Albain” or “King of Scotland” despite the fact that much of northern Scotland as far as Moray was held by the Norse Earl Sigurd from Orkney. Donald was a son of Constantine I and was described as rough and cunning. He was killed by men from the Mearns near Dunottar and, like most of the early kings of Scotland, was buried on Iona.

Constantine II (900-942)

Son of Aedh. After an unsuccessful invasion of Northumbria, Constantine had to submit to the Saxon King Edward the Elder, son of Alfred the Great. Constantine was also defeated in a later battle against Athelstan, Edward’s son, at Brunanburgh. He renounced the throne in favour of his cousin, Malcolm I and became a monk at St Andrews. He died in 952.

Malcolm I (942-954)

Malcolm I was a son of Donald II. He was killed in battle with the men of Moray and was buried at Iona.

Indulph (954-962)

King Indulph (also spelt Indulf) was a son of Constantine II. He defeated the Danish King Eric of the Bloody Axe at the Battle of the Bauds on the Muir of Findochty (pronounced Finechty), in present day Banffshire, in 961. Like his father, he abdicated and entered a monastery.

Dubh/Duff (962-966)

Son of Malcolm I, and father of Kenneth III. Died in battle.

Culen/Cuilean/Colin (966-971)

Another great-great-grandson of Kenneth I, and a son of Indulf, he was killed by a treacherous booby-trap at Fettercairn, set by the daughter of the Thane of Angus.

Kenneth II (971-995)

Kenneth II was the son of Malcolm I and therefore a great-great-grandson of Kenneth I.

Constantine III (995-997)

Son of King Culen and grandson of Constantine II. He may have succeeded to the throne by killing Kenneth II and may in turn have been killed by Kenneth III.

Kenneth III (997-1005)

Son of King Dubh, he was nicknamed “Donn” or brown-haired. He was defeated and killed at Monzievaird by his cousin, Malcolm II. None of his sons became king.

Malcolm II (1005-1034)

Malcolm II was son of Kenneth II but, due to disputed succession, he did not come to the throne until ten years after his father’s death, having killed his cousin Kenneth III. The last of the House of Alpin, he did not have any sons to succeed him so he arranged good marriages for his daughters. His daughter Bethoc married the Abbot of Dunkeld and their son became Duncan I. Another daughter married Earl Sigurd of Orkney and their son Thorfinn brought the lands of Caithness and Sutherland under the control of the King of Alba. Malcolm made an alliance with the King Owen the Bald of Strathclyde and together they defeated King Canute at the Battle of Carham in 1018. When King Owen died without an heir, Malcolm claimed Strathclyde for his grandson, Duncan. His enemies disliked this and murdered him at Glamis in 1034.

Duncan I (1034-1040)


Grandson of Malcolm II, Duncan I first became King of Strathclyde and then Scotland on the death of his grandfather. He married the cousin of the Earl of Northumberland and his two sons, Malcolm III and Donald III, eventually also became king. He was defeated in battle by his cousin Thorfinn, Earl of Orkney and failed in an unsuccessful siege of Durham in the north of England. He was defeated and killed by Macbeth near Forres in Morayshire.

Macbeth (1040-1057


Macbeth’s origins are obscure – his mother was a daughter of Kenneth II or III or possibly Malcolm II and his father was Finlay McRory, Mormaer of Atholl and lay abbot of Dunkeld. He killed Duncan I but unlike the Shakespearean Macbeth, he was a powerful and successful monarch. His Queen, Gruoch, was a grand-daughter of Kenneth II. Macbeth was defeated by Malcolm Canmore, with an English army, at Dunsinane in 1054. A second invasion in 1057 saw his defeat and death at Lumphanan, near Aberdeen by Malcolm and his English allies led by Earl Siward of Northumbria.

Lulach (1057-1058

Stepson of Macbeth, nicknamed “The Fool”, Lulach became king on his stepfather’s death. He was the first recorded monarch to have been crowned at Scone but was defeated and killed by Malcolm Canmore less than a year later.

Malcolm III (1058-1093)

Malcolm “Canmore” (‘ceann’ means head or chief and ‘mor’ means great) was the son of Duncan I and went into exile in Northumberland when his father was killed by Macbeth. With English support, he defeated and killed Macbeth at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire in 1057 and Lulach, Macbeth’s stepson, the following year. He founded the dynasty of the House of Canmore which lasted until the House of Stewart. By his first marriage to Ingibiorg (daughter of Thorfinn of Orkney), he had two sons, Duncan II (see below) and Donald. Following Ingibiorg’s death, he married Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling, who would have become King of England if William the Conqueror from Normandy had not overrun the country. By this marriage there were six sons, four of whom (Duncan, Edgar, Alexander and David) would become king. Malcolm made raids into Northumbria and Cumbria but William marched north and Malcolm was forced to submit and sign the Treaty of Abernethy in 1071. A final incursion in 1093 led to his defeat and death at Alnwick. His son and heir, Edward, died in the same battle and Queen Margaret died four days later.

Donald III (1093-1094)

Donald Bane “the Fair” was a son of Duncan I and a brother of Malcolm III. He claimed the throne when Malcolm III and his son were killed on the same day. During his short reign, in a Celtic backlash, he expelled all the English courtiers brought in by Malcolm and his wife Margaret.

Duncan II (May to November, 1094)

Son of Malcolm III by his first marriage, Duncan grew up in Normandy (he had been handed over as a hostage to William the Conqueror) and ousted his uncle Donald III with the support of the English King William Rufus. However, Donald fought back and Duncan was killed at Dunnottar by his half-brother Edmund (who supported Donald). Duncan’s descendants through William, the Earl of Moray, were a thorn in the side of the King of Scotland until the end of the 13th century.

Donald III (1094-1097)

Having resumed his reign, Donald Bane did not last much longer and was captured, blinded and imprisoned by Edgar, one of the sons of Malcolm III. Donald died in captivity 1099 in Forfar and was buried in Iona.

Edgar (1097-1107)

The fourth son of Malcolm III, Edgar was aged 19 at the death of his father in 1093. He was given shelter by the English (Saxon) King William (Rufus) and in 1097, with the assistance of English troops, he defeated his uncle, Donald III. During his reign, the King of Norway, Magnus Barelegs, forced Edgar to give up “all islands around which a ship could sail” and promptly dragged his galley overland at Tarbert, Loch Fyne to seize a chunk of the mainland Mull of Kintyre too. Edgar (whose Saxon name was noted with disapproval at the time) died peacefully in 1107 and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey. His next brother, Alexander I, became king.

Alexander I (1107-1124)

Alexander I was the fifth son of Malcolm Canmore. Although King of Scotland, he only ruled north of the Forth and Clyde as his younger brother David had been made Earl of Strathclyde, Lothian and the Borders. North of the river Spey and the Western Isles were under Norwegian control. He died in Stirling in 1124 and was buried in Dunfermline.

David I (1124-1153)


The last son of four of the sons of Malcolm Canmore to become King of Scotland, David I was sent to the English court of Henry I at the age of nine and spent many years there. When his brother Edgar died, David became Earl of southern Scotland and then King of Scotland in 1124 when his other brother Alexander I died also. David brought many knights and courtiers from England and and established a feudal system in Scotland. He introduced many novel ideas such as silver coinage, promoting education and giving audiences to rich and poor alike. During a long and peaceful reign he enacted many good laws and died peacefully in Carlisle in 1153 at the age of 69.

Malcolm IV (1153-1165)

Grandson of David I, Malcolm IV came to the throne at the age of 12 (his father had predeceased him) and was nicknamed “the Maiden”. He had to cope with rebellions by Somerled, in Argyll and the Isles and others in Moray and Galloway. Henry II of England also reclaimed Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland which had been ceded to Scotland during the reign of David I. After fighting in France on behalf of King Henry of England he returned and defeated Somerled who was attempting to advance eastwards, but not before the town of Glasgow had been sacked . But he never had good health and died in Jedburgh at the age of 23, succeeded by his brother William.

William (1165-1214)

William “The Lion” was also the grandson of David I. The nickname “The Lion” was accorded to him after his death and may have been due either to his valour and strength or to the heraldic symbol which he adopted – the lion rampant. He attempted to recover land in Northumberland in 1174 but was defeated and captured at the Battle of Alnwick. William was forced to swear allegiance to King Henry II of England which lasted until Henry’s death in 1189. He failed to assert his authority over the south-west of Scotland and over MacDougall Lords of Lorne or Macdonald Lords of the Isles. He married Ermengarde de Beaumont who bore him a son (Alexander II) and three daughters (all of whom married English nobles).



Alexander II (1214-1249)

Alexander II was the son of William the Lion and came to the throne at the age of 16. He has a reputation as a wise and well-loved monarch, more of a politician than a fighter, although he did support the English barons in their fight against King John. His first marriage was to the sister of King Henry III of England (son of King John). Following her death, he married the daughter of a French nobleman by whom he had one son – who became Alexander III. He founded a number of monasteries and the castles at Kildrummy and Eilean Donan. Alexander died on Kerrara, off Oban on 8 July 1249 while attempting to recover the Hebrides from King Haakon IV of Norway. He was buried at Kelso Abbey.

Alexander III (1249-1286)

Alexander III was crowned king at Scone when he was eight years old. He successfully defeated an invasion by King Haakon of Norway at the Battle of Largs in 1263. Married to Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England, his daughter married Haakon’s grandson, Eric II – their daughter Margaret later became Queen of Scotland. He had three children but they all predeceased him. Alexander married a second time in order to produce a direct heir but within six months of his marriage his horse stumbled in the dark in Fife as he was returning to his wife and he died at the foot of the cliff.

Margaret (1286-1290)

Grand-daughter of Alexander III, Margaret “Maid of Norway” became Queen of Scotland at the age of three. She was the last of the direct line of the House of Canmore. She left Norway to come to Orkney in 1290 but died on the voyage before reaching Scotland. Prior to this, by the Treaty of Birgham in 1290, King Edward I had guaranteed the survival of Scotland “separate, apart and free without subjection to the English nation” as a result of the six-year-old Margaret marrying the five-year-old future king of England, Edward II. The arrangement was invalidated by Margaret’s death.

Interregnum (1290-1292)

There were thirteen competitors for the throne of Scotland at this point, the main ones being John Balliol and Robert Bruce, Earl of Annandale. It was decided to ask the Edward I, King of England to adjudicate. Edward used the situation to his advantage, insisting that the King of Scotland should be subservient to the King of England (contrary to the principles set out in the Treaty of Birgham – see above). Edward eventually appointed John Balliol – at the same time demanding custody of many of the important Scottish castles.

John (1292-1296)

John Balliol, who owned estates in both Scotland and England, was crowned at Scone in 1292. However, Edward’s demands, including Scottish soldiers for his war in France, became increasingly intolerable. John attempted to renew the “Auld Alliance” with France but Edward invaded Scotland and routed the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar in 1296. John fled but was forced to make an abject surrender. His royal insignia was stripped from him (giving rise to his nickname “Toom Tabard” – empty coat). After a spell imprisoned in the Tower of London, he was released and spent the rest of his life in France.

Interregnum (1296-1306)

With John Balliol out of the way, King Edward effectively ruled Scotland for the next ten years. William Wallace defeated Edward at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297 and governed Scotland briefly but was defeated the following year at the Battle of Falkirk. Wallace continued a geurilla campaign but was captured and executed in 1305. It was not until Robert the Bruce emerged and was crowned at Scone in 1306 that Scotland regained her own monarch.

The story of Scotland’s Monarchs continues in Part 2 which covers from Robert the Bruce to the Union of the Parliaments in 1707 when Queen Anne was monarch of both Scotland and England.


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Scottish Architecture. Calton Hill.

Calton Hill in Edinburgh is a famous landmark, set directly in the City Centre. Housed on this hill is an Athenian Acropolis, the unfinished project started in early 1800,s it is titled the “National Monument”
It was just after Napoleon’s defeat copied after the sculpture in Athens. This was to commemorate the dead from the Napoleonic wars.


As always with such a major project they ran out of money before it was completed, hence why it was nicknamed “Edinburgh’s” shame? Cannot understand why because even unfinished it is beautiful.

In my younger days, we used this place as an adventure playground, It is approximately five minutes away from where I used to live when I lived in Edinburgh.
We used to grab cardboard boxes, yes you heard right folks lol cardboard boxes, we used them to slide down Calton Hill, the grass was so shiny that it enabled you to slide down very fast this was cool.

From the top of Calton Hill, you get excellent views of the City, Arthurs Seat and Salisbury crags, as well as the Main City Centre Princess street. Also, housed on top of Calton Hill is a very old Observatory which is now called “Camera Obscura” for lovers of stargazing this is the place to visit.

There is also a Monument of Admiral Nelson who led the British troops to victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, in 1805, it was said that ships set their navigation with the special chronometer fitted on the monument. Mostly these days Calton Hill is a venue for the Edinburgh Festival Grand fireworks display which is a superb array of lights and bangs lol.

Thanks for visiting.

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Scottish Bands-Music. (tradition)

Hey folks, enjoyed the last presentation of music, here is more, enjoy.

Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music. Scottish music is a significant aspect of the nation’s culture. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland bagpipe. The clàrsach (harp), fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish instruments.

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Scotland and its history. Creation.

The History of Scotland is known to have begun by the end of the last glacial period (in the paleolithic), roughly 10,000 years ago. Prehistoric Scotland entered the Neolithic Era about 4000 bc, the Bronze Age about 2000 bc, and the Iron Age around 700 bc. Scotland’s recorded history began with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century when the province of Britannia reached as far north as the line between the firths of Clyde to the Forth.

North of this was Caledonia, whose people were known in Latin as “Picti”, “the painted ones”. Constant risings forced Rome’s legions back: Hadrian’s Wall attempted to seal off the Roman south and the Antonine Wall attempted to move the Roman border north. The latter was swiftly abandoned and the former overrun, most spectacularly during the Great Conspiracy of the 360s. As Rome finally withdrew from Britain, Gaelic raiders called the Scoti began colonizing Western Scotland and Wales.
According to 9th- and 10th-century sources, the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata was founded on the west coast of Scotland in the 6th century.


In the following century, the Irish missionary Columba founded a monastery on Iona and introduced the previously pagan Scoti and pagan Picts to Celtic Christianity. Following England’s Gregorian mission, the Pictish king Nechtan chose to abolish most Celtic practices in favour of the Roman rite, restricting Gaelic influence on his kingdom and avoiding war with Anglian Northumbria. Towards the end of the 8th century, the Viking invasions began. Successive defeats by the Norse forced the Picts and Gaels to cease their historic hostility to each other and to unite in the 9th century, forming the Kingdom of Scotland.

The Kingdom of Scotland was united under the descendants of Kenneth MacAlpin, the first king of a united Scotland. His descendants, known to modern historians as the House of Alpin, fought among each other during frequent disputed successions. The last Alpin king, Malcolm II, died without issue in the early 11th century and the kingdom passed through his daughter’s son, Duncan I, who started a new line of kings known to modern historians as the House of Dunkeld or Canmore. The last Dunkeld king, Alexander III, died in 1286 leaving only a single infant granddaughter as heir; four years later, Margaret, Maid of Norway herself died in a tragic shipwreck en route to Scotland.


England, under Edward I, would take advantage of the questioned succession in Scotland to launch a series of conquests into Scotland. The resulting Wars of Scottish Independence were fought in the late 13th and early 14th centuries as Scotland passed back and forth between the House of Balliol and the House of Bruce. Scotland’s ultimate victory in the Wars of Independence under David II confirmed Scotland as a fully independent and sovereign kingdom. When David II died without issue, his nephew Robert II established the House of Stewart (the spelling would be changed to Stuart in the 16th century), which would rule Scotland uncontested for the next three centuries.

James VI, Stuart king of Scotland, also inherited the throne of England in 1603, and the Stuart kings and queens ruled both independent kingdoms until the Act of Union in 1707 merged the two kingdoms into a new state, the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Ruling until 1714, Queen Anne was the last Stuart monarch. Since 1714, the succession of the British monarchs of the houses of Hanover and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Windsor) has been due to their descent from James VI and I of the House of Stuart.
During the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution, Scotland became one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Later, its industrial decline following the Second World War was particularly acute. In recent decades Scotland has enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance, fueled in part by a resurgent financial services sector and the proceeds of North Sea oil and gas. Since the 1950s, nationalism has become a strong political topic, with serious debates on Scottish independence, and a referendum in 2014 about leaving the British Union.

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Scottish Places of Interest. C.A


Growing up in the Seventies in Edinburgh was cool, apart from the flared trousers, which meant you actually swept the streets as you walked, and the wedged shoes which made you seven feet tall, well fashion tends to come and go just like History that’s why it is named History LOL, a thing in the past, a memory. There was so much to do, so many places to visit, we spent a lot of time at the beach, in fact, most or all of the summer. The beach was called Cramond, not a beach you would associate with sunny climes, golden sands, heat LOL no it was more like a shore than a beach, although further along Cramond there were stretches of sand and Golden at that leading to one of the many small islands in the Firth of Forth.

The one we visited a lot during summer holidays was an Island aptly named Cramond Island, this was an ideal place to play, the trick was to walk over once the tide went out but you had to make sure you got back before the tide came on or else you were stranded, being kids we never knew the tide times but thankfully we always got back in time.
The walk was wonderful, however, there were huge areas where the sand would just sink and I mean deeply sink, not quicksand but similar, so we avoided that area, but it wasn’t always easy.
So what has all this got to do with History I hear you ask,? Well, we are getting to that. Cramond Island was famous more during World War 2 than any other period in its history.

Before that there was evidence of life on the Island around 8500 BC it was believed the first early Scottish settlers settled on the Island, it is not the biggest of Islands it covers a couple of acres.
On the Island are remains of an ancient Roman Fort dug deep, this was a fortress for the Romans which would protect all areas in the Firth of Forth from invading armies, yes the Romans knew what they were doing LOL.

But more recently the Island was used for fortification against German invasion, Guns were placed in shelters which still stand today, and were used when German planes flew over the Firth of Forth, mainly their target was Leith Docks were the Military ships were based.
There was a farmhouse on the island right up until the early 1960s the Island even had sheep on it, but when I visited in the Seventies all that remained were the shelters, bunkers, and storerooms used in


The following picture is a better view from the Island and indicates how large it is, but to young boys in an adventure, it was HUGE…
I recommend if you ever visit Scotland to spend half a day visiting these great Islands, there is a tour of the Islands so do not worry LOL you won’t have to do what I did in the early years and walk over


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Famous Scots. Brian Cox CBE.

Brian Denis Cox CBE (born 1 June 1946) is a Scottish actor. He has worked extensively with the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal National Theatre, where he gained recognition for his portrayal of King Lear. He played supporting roles in Rob Roy (1995) and Mel Gibson’s Academy Award-winning Braveheart (1995). He was the first actor to portray Hannibal Lecter on film in the cult classic Manhunter (1986). A winner of two Olivier Awards, a Primetime Emmy Award, and a Golden Globe Award, Cox has also been nominated for a British Academy Television Award and three Screen Actors Guild Awards.

Cox won the Primetime Emmy Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Limited Series for his portrayal of Nazi war criminal Hermann Goering in Nuremberg and received nominations at the Golden Globe Awards and Screen Actors Guild Awards. Cox’s performance in L.I.E. earned him an AFI Award nomination and an Independent Spirit Award nomination. His guest-starring role on the hit series Frasier earned him his second Emmy nomination in 2002, in which year he also appeared in seven films grossing $347 million at the box office. In 2003, Cox was appointed a Commander of the British Empire. He received his second SAG Award nomination as part of the ensemble cast of Adaptation, in which he plays Hollywood’s screenwriting guru Robert McKee.


He was also praised for his portrayal of non-mutant villain General William Stryker in the blockbuster X-Men 2. He currently stars as media magnate Logan Roy on HBO’s critically lauded series Succession, for which he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Drama Series and was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Best Actor in a Drama Series. His other notable film credits include In Celebration (1975), Hidden Agenda (1990), Prince of Jutland (1994), The Long Kiss Goodnight (1996), The Boxer (1997), Rushmore (1998), The Minus Man (1999), Super Troopers (2001), The Bourne Identity (2002), The Ring (2002), The Reckoning (2003), Troy (2004), The Bourne Supremacy (2004), Red Eye (2005), Zodiac (2007), The Escapist (2008), RED (2010), Rise of the Planet of the Apes (2011), RED 2 (2013), Churchill (2017), The Pretenders (2018), Remember Me (2019), The Bay of Silence (2020) and Separation (2021).

Cox is a seasoned veteran of the London stage, having won two Olivier Awards for Best Actor for his performances in Titus Andronicus for the Royal Shakespeare Company and Rat in the Skull for the Royal Court, and two more Olivier Award nominations for Misalliance and Fashion. New York theatre credits include St. Nicholas which earned him the Lucille Lortel Award for Outstanding Actor, and Drama Desk and Outer Critic’s Circle nominations.

Cox is the author of three books, Salem to Moscow: An Actor’s Odyssey, The Lear Diaries, and his autobiography Putting the Rabbit in the Hat. He was honored at the 2004 BAFTA Scotland Awards with an Outstanding Achievement Award, and at the 2004 Great Scot Awards with a Lifetime Achievement Award. Empire Magazine awarded him the Empire Icon Award for his film achievements in 2006, and the UK Film Council named him one of the Top 10 powerful British film stars in Hollywood in 2007.

Early life.

Cox was born in Dundee in June 1, 1946 as the youngest of five children.He is from a working-class Roman Catholic family of Irish and Scottish descent. His mother, Mary Ann Guillerline (née McCann), was a spinner who worked in the jute mills and suffered several nervous breakdowns during Cox’s childhood. His father, Charles McArdle Campbell Cox, was a police officer and later a shopkeeper, and died when Cox was eight years old. Cox was brought up by his three elder sisters, including Betty with whom Cox has remained close.

In Dundee, Cox attended St Mary’s Forebank Primary School and St Michael’s Junior Secondary School which he left at the age of 15. After working at Dundee Repertory Theatre for a few years, he began his training at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art at age 17 and graduated in 1965.

Acting career


1961-1979: Early work

Brian Cox began his acting career at age 14 at Dundee Repertory Theatre in 1961 and then as one of the founding members of the Royal Lyceum Theatre Edinburgh, performing in its first show, The Servant O’ Twa Maisters, in October 1965. From 1966, he worked at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre for two years, where he played the title role in Peer Gynt (1967) and made his West End debut in June 1967 as Orlando in As You Like It at the Vaudeville Theatre.

1980s: Rat in the Skull, Misalliance, Fashion, Titus Adronicus

Cox is an accomplished Shakespearean actor, spending seasons with both the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal National Theatre in the UK in the 1980s and 1990s. In 1983, he portrayed the Duke of Burgundy opposite Laurence Olivier who played title role of King Lear. In 1984, he played the Royal Ulster Constabulary officer Inspector Nelson in the Royal Court’s production of Rat in the Skull. He was subsequently awarded that year’s Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actor in a New Play. He made his Broadway debut in February 1985 as Edmund Darrell in Eugene O’Neill’s Strange Interlude at the Nederlander Theatre for which he received his first British Theatre Association Drama Award for Best Actor. In May that year, he made his off-Broadway debut, reprising his role as Inspector Nelson, in Rat in the Skull at the Public Theater. He received two additional Laurence Olivier nominations for Misalliance (1984) and for Fashion (1988).

He won his second Laurence Olivier Award, this time as Best Actor in a Revival, for his performance as the title character in Titus Andronicus (1988). Cox later said that he considers his performance in Titus Andronicus the greatest he has ever given on stage. His performance as Petruchio in The Taming of The Shrew (1987) also garnered positive reviews and won him another British Theatre Association Drama Award for Best Actor.

1990s: King Lear and St. Nicholas.

Cox returned from some years teaching and directing at the Moscow Arts Theatre School to tour with the Royal National Theatre worldwide, delivering a highly acclaimed performance as the title role in King Lear (1990-1991). His account of the emotional and physical difficulties that came with playing King Lear’s all-consuming role was detailed in The Lear Diaries (1995) which he authored. King Lear is one of Shakespeare’s most difficult roles, and Cox’s portrayal broke new ground in the understanding of this most enigmatic figure.

In 1995, he directed Open Air Theatre’s chilling adaptation of Richard III which was well received by critics. During the same season, he also appeared in one of the theatre’s productions, The Music Man, as Professor Harold Hill.

In 1997, he starred in Conor McPherson’s St. Nicholas at the Bush Theatre in London, and in 1998 returned to the off-Broadway stage reprising his role for Primary Stages, where he won a Lucille Lortel Award and earned a Drama Desk and an Outer Critics Circle nomination for his New York performance. In the same year, he played Marc in the Broadway production of Art.


In 2000, Cox reunited with award-winning playwright Conor McPherson on The Royal Court Theatre’s production of Dublin Carol in which he starred as grim alcoholic undertaker John Plunkett. In 2004, he played the title character in Uncle Varick for the Royal Lyceum Theatre in Edinburgh. In 2005, he starred in The Ride Down Mt. Morgan in Los Angeles for the Los Angeles Theatre Works.

From 2006 to 2007, he starred as Max at London’s West End production of Tom Stoppard’s Rock ‘n Roll, a role he reprised on Broadway until 2008. In 2011, Cox appeared on Broadway opposite in a revival of Jason Miller’s That Championship Season. His portrayal of Jack in The Weir at the Donmar Theatre in April 2013 is reprised at Wyndham’s Theatre in January 2014. In Fall 2015, Cox starred in a new production of Waiting for Godot, for  Royal Lyceum Theatre Edinburgh’s 50th anniversary. In 2016, he became co-artistic director of the Mirror Theater Ltd Cox returned to the Broadway stage in 2019 to star as Lyndon B. Johnson in Robert Shenkkan’s The Great Society at the Vivian Beaumont Theater. In 2020, he directed the UK premiere of Joshua Sobol’s Sinners — The English Professor. Cox has also previously directed I Love My Life, Mrs. Warren’s Profession, The Philanderer, The Master Builder, The Crucible, and Julius Caesar on stage.

Film and television.

1965-1989: Early work and breakthrough.

Cox made his first television appearance as Nelson in an episode of The Wednesday Play in 1965 and made one-off appearances in RedcapITV Playhouse, and The Gamblers before taking a lead role in The Year of the Sex Olympics in 1968. His first film appearance was as Leon Trotsky in Nicholas and Alexandra in 1971. In 1978 he played King Henry II of England in the acclaimed BBC2 drama serial The Devil’s Crown, then starred in many other television dramas.

In 1986, he portrayed Hannibal Lecktor in Manhunter, the character’s first appearance on film.

1990-1999: Rob RoyBraveheartRushmore.

In 1990, Cox portrayed Andrew Neil in Secret Weapon based on Mordechai Vanunu’s life story. In the same year, he guest-starred as Father Amedy in the comedy series Perfect Scoundrels and starred as police investigator Kerrigan in the political thriller Hidden Agenda. In 1991, he played the role of Owen Benjamin, the closeted father of a gay man, in the BBC production of David Leavitt’s novel, The Lost Language of Cranes, which is set in the 1980s. For his performance, he was nominated as Best Actor at the 1993 BAFTA TV Awards He also played Geoffrey Harrison in the ITV thriller Red Fox based on Gerald Seymour’s international bestseller. In 1992, he appeared in another ITV adaptation as Carl May in The Cloning of Joanna May based on Fay Weldon’s sci-fi novel. He also appeared as Stefan Szabo in the first episode of the fifth season of Van der Valk. He played the title role in the short film The Cutter and “The Director” in BBC’s anthology series of classic and contemporary plays Performance. He also starred as Carlton Heard in Deceptions and as Edward Hoyland in The Big Battalions, a series about three religious families of differing faith.

In 1993, he appeared as spymaster Major Hogan in two episodes of Sharpe, and as Brother Shaw in Sean’s Show.  He played P.O. Garvey in BBC’s anthology series Scene featuring plays and documentaries originally broadcast for educational purposes. In the same year, he was seen in an episode of Inspector Morse, where he portrayed Michael Steppings, a retired bookmaker whose daughter is in a permanent coma. In 1994, he appeared alongside Kevin Spacey as Angus Mcleague in Iron Will. He portrayed Aethelwine alongside Christian Bale and Hellen Mirren in Royal Deceit, an adaptation of the Danish legend of Prince Amleth. He also played the role of Colonel Grushko, ‘a policeman who sees greed and rapacity in Russia’s new mood’, in Grushko, a British-made crime drama set in Russia. He then starred in The Negotiator as Charlie King, a “street copper” who had a heart attack.

He shot to superstardom in the mid-1990s thanks to roles in the likes of Rob Roy as Killearn and Braveheart as Argyle Wallace in 1995. His performance in the former earned him a BAFTA Scotland Award nomination for Best Actor.  In 1996, he starred with Helen McRory as Judge Freisler in Witness Against Hitler which tells the true story of a Prussian intelligence officer and aristocrat who, with his fellow devout Christians, plotted to assassinate Hitler. In the same year he played Lyman Earl Collier, a murderous CEO in Chain Reaction. He also appeared with Steven Seagal in The Glimmer Man as the CIA superior Mr. Smith, and with Samuel L. Jackson in The Long Kiss Goodnight as Dr. Nathan Waldman.

Cox made a guest appearance in the 1997 Red Dwarf episode “Stoke Me a Clipper”, as a medieval king in a virtual reality game. In the same year, he appeared alongside Morgan Freeman in the neo-noir psychological thriller Kiss the Girls based on James Patterson’s bestselling novel. He also played Nye Bevan in the drama Food for Ravens and ranking IRA member Joe Hamill in the Irish sports drama The Boxer alongside Daniel Day-Lewis.[49] In 1998, he appeared as police captain Jeremiah Cassidy in Desperate Measures, Uncle Vladimir in the romantic comedy Merchants of Venus, Clayton Blackstone in HBO’s neo-noir film Poodle Springs, and in the drama Family Brood. In the same year, he appeared alongside Bill Murray in Wes Anderson’s Rushmore as the school headmaster Dr. Nelson Guggenheim. The film is preserved by the Library of Congress in 2016 due to its cultural, historical, and aesthetic significance. In 1999, he appeared opposite Owen Wilson as postal worker Doug Durwin in the thriller The Minus Man. He also played Sean Wallace in The Corruptor alongside Chow Yun-Fat and Mark Wahlberg and appeared as Gary Wheeler in the sports drama For Love of the Game.

2000-2005: Nuremberg, L.I.E., Bourne series, The Ring, Adaptation, X-Men 2, Troy.

In 2000, Cox portrayed Lord Morton in Longitude, a dramatization of Dava Sobel’s book. He starred as the title character in The Invention of Dr. Morel, who invents a VR machine as a duplicate of the woman he loved. He also starred opposite Johnny Lee Miller as Inspector McDunn in Complicity, and as Sidney McLoughlin in the romantic comedy Mad About Mambo. He won an Emmy Award as Best Supporting Actor and was nominated for a Golden Globe Award as Best Actor for his portrayal of Hermann Göring in Nuremberg. He appeared in the Irish drama Saltwater as George Beneventi, a chip-shop-owning father troubled by loan sharks.

In 2001, he played the fatherly police Captain O’Hagan in Super Troopers. In the same year, he received critical acclaim for his performance as the pedophile Big John Harrigan in Michael Cuesta’s L.I.E., winning a Satellite Award for Best Actor in Motion Picture Drama, and receiving nominations for the Independent Spirit Award for Best Lead Actor and the AFI Award for Featured Male Actor of the Year. In Strictly Sinatra, he played mob enforcer Chisolm who helps an aspiring musician passionate on Frank Sinatra. He also portrayed Baron de Breteuil in The Affair of the Necklace based on the diamond necklace incident that fueled dissent against the French monarchy and led to the French Revolution.

In 2002, Cox appeared in A Shot at Glory as Rangers manager Martin Smith. He starred as Cyr in Bug in which a diverse group is propelled to a common fate by a series of cause-and-effect chain reactions. He played Jim Morris, Sr. in the sports drama The Rookie, based on the true story of Jim Morris. In the same year, he guest-starred as Harry Moon in two episodes of the critically acclaimed series Frasier for which he would receive an Emmy nomination as Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series. He then starred as corrupt CIA official Ward Abbott in the blockbuster film The Bourne Identity, opposite Matt Damon. He appeared as Michael O’Mara in The Biographer, and also starred as Richard Morgan in the supernatural horror thriller The Ring, a remake of the 1998 Japanese film. It was one of the highest-grossing horror remakes, paving the way for other English-version horror remakes. He played Edward Norton’s father James Brogan in 25th Hour, and also appeared in Spike Jonze’s Adaptation as the real-life screenwriting teacher, Robert McKee, giving advice to Nicolas Cage in both his roles as Charlie Kaufman and Charlie’s fictional twin brother, Donald. He shared a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination as part of the ensemble cast of the latter.

In 2003, he played Tobias in The Reckoning, a murder mystery drama set in the medieval period. He also played the villain William Stryker in X2: X-Men United and Captain Oakes in the direct-to-video crime thriller Sin. In 2004, Cox played an alternate, villainous version of King Agamemnon opposite Brad Pitt in Troy. He also reprised his role as Ward Abbott in The Bourne Supremacy, the second installment of the Bourne franchise. In the short film Get the Picture, he played Harry Sondheim, a journalist who doubts the guilt of four suspected terrorists. He portrayed King Lear in episode 4 of season 6 of French and Saunders, BBC’s sketch comedy series as satire to popular culture. He was honored at the 2004 BAFTA Scotland Awards with an Outstanding Achievement Award, and at the 2004 Great Scot Awards with a Lifetime Achievement Award.

In 2005, Cox starred as Dr. Robert Smith in Blue/Orange, a BBC film adaptation of Joe Penhall’s play exploring race, mental illness, and modern British life. He played Alec Hewett, patriarch of the wealthy family in Woody Allen’s psychological thriller Match Point. He also played Rachel McAdams’ father Joe Reisert in Red Eye. In the biographical drama The Strange Case of Sherlock Holmes & Arthur Conan Doyle, he portrayed Doyle’s mentor Dr. Joseph Bell. The television film explored how Doyle created Holmes and how he applied his Bell’s techniques in his novels. In the sports comedy The Ringer, he played Gary Barker who suggests to his nephew to enter and fix a Special Olympics to solve their financial woes.

2006-2010: ZodiacThe EscapistRED.

In 2006, Cox played Dr. Hunt in A Woman in Winter which explores the nature of obsessive love. In The Flying Scotsman, based on the life of Scottish amateur cyclist Graeme Obree, he portrayed Douglas Baxter, a boatyard owner and minister who befriends the atheist cyclist. He appeared as Jack Langrishe in the HBO series Deadwood. In ITV’s The Outsiders, he played Gabriel, the head of the spy agency. In the comedy-drama Running with Scissors, based on Augusten Burroughs’ bestselling memoir about his childhood, he portrayed Dr. Finch, the psychiatrist of Burrough’s mother and patriarch of an eccentric family to whom Burrough was sent to live with.

In 2007, Cox portrayed prominent US lawyer Melvin Belli in David Fincher’s mystery thriller Zodiac, based on Robert Graysmith’s book which follows the manhunt for the Zodiac Killer. He also played old Angus in the fantasy drama The Water Horse, Mr. Kreeg in the anthology horror Trick ‘r Treat, Daniel Tennant in Shoot on Sight based on Operation Kratos, and Drosselmeyer in The Secret of the Nutcracker.

In 2008 Cox starred as Avery Ludlow in Red, and also played institutionalized convict Frank Perry, the protagonist in Rupert Wyatt’s film, The Escapist (2008), appearing alongside Joseph Fiennes, Dominic Cooper, and Damian Lewis. For the latter, he won that year’s BAFTA Scotland Award for Best Acting Performance. In 2009, he appeared as Lewis Serrocold in the ITV series Marple loosely based on Agatha Christie’s books and short stories. He starred as Philip Van Doren in the Ridley Scott produced Tell-Tale, a film based on the short story The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe. He starred as the legendary criminal godfather Ozzy in The Take and portrayed King Vesper Abaddon, the former king of Carmel in Kings loosely based on the biblical King David and set in a modern absolute monarchy. He also starred as the short-tempered bartender Jacques in the Icelandic film The Good Heart, and as Burt Macey in the crime drama Lost & Found. He also appeared as Dennis in The Day of the Triffids based on John Wyndham’s best-selling post-apocalyptic novel.

In 2010, he played Reverend Kalahan, cult leader and pastor whose death is the backdrop of the story in the crime thriller As Good as Dead. He portrayed former Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin in the television film On Expenses. He also starred as Wally, an old rogue who fulfills his old friend’s dying wish for a sea burial in the black comedy All at Sea. In the same year, Cox played Laura Linney’s father in the Showtime series The Big C, and appeared as Ivan Simonov in RED.

2011-2017: Rise of the Planet of the ApesBob ServantRED 2Churchill.

In 2011, he starred as Captain Rudolph Sharp in The Sinking of the Laconia, BBC Two’s television film about the sinking of the British ocean liner RMS Laconia during World War II. He co-starred with Gerald Butler and Ralph Fiennes as a quietly reasonable senator in Coriolanus, a modern British film adaptation of the Shakespeare tragedy. He portrayed Baron William d’Aubigny, a lordly wool merchant against King John’s tyranny in Ironclad, a war film set after the ratification of the Magna Carta. In the American thriller The Key Man, he shared the screen with Hugo Weaving as Irving, a sociopathic con man, and a Shakespearian actor. He then starred in The Veteran as a British intelligence officer who recruits a war veteran to track a female contact infiltrating a group of suspected terrorists. He also starred as John Landon in the science-fiction film Rise of the Planet of the Apes. He appeared as Glover Boyd, the retired policeman father of the protagonist in the Canadian biographical drama Citizen Gangster.

In 2012, Cox appeared in the Australian drama The Straits as the patriarch of the Montebello family crime syndicate, Harry Montebello. He appeared as Raymond Huggins, an associate of two corrupt businessmen brothers, in the political satire film The Campaign, and as Bill Ball in A Touch of Cloth, a parody of British police procedural dramas He starred in Blood as Lenny Fairburn, a retired cop, and father of two fraternal detectives played by Paul Bettany and Stephen Graham. He also appeared as an old man in the short film I Missed My Mother’s Funeral.

In January 2013, Cox played the title character in the series Bob Servant. He said he played Servant, the creation of Dundonian author Neil Forsyth, based on memories of his late brother Charlie. He played Ivan Simonov in RED 2, reprising his role from the 2010 original film. In Blumenthal, he played the title role as the legendary playwright Harold Blumenthal who made a career out of parodying his family and died laughing at his own joke. He starred in Believe as the legendary Scottish football manager Sir Matt Busby who returns from retirement to coach a group of young working-class boys. He also starred in the psychological thriller Mindscape (original title Anna) as Sebastian, a superior in top memory detective agency Mindscape, which employs psychics to assist in solving criminal cases. He portrayed FBI director J. Edgar Hoover in The Curse of Edgar, an original docudrama based on the bestselling novel by Marc Dugain about Hoover’s battle to keep power away from the Kennedys. In November 2013, he starred in the BBC television docudrama, An Adventure in Space and Time, about the creation of the British science-fiction series Doctor Who. Cox portrayed Canadian television executive Sydney Newman, the driving force behind the creation of the iconic program. He appeared in Tooned, an animated cartoon about Formula One racing, as an old mechanic, and as Magnus Bain in the crime drama series Shetland (2013-2014) which was initially based on Ann Cleeves’ novels.

In 2014, Cox appeared in The Anomaly as Lloyd Langham, Ian Somerhalder’s father in the sci-fi thriller, who conducted nightmarish experiments on the protagonist. He also appeared in the documentary The Great War: The People’s Story as Reverend Andrew Clark, and in BBC’s Cold War spy thriller series The Game as an MI5 superior codenamed “Daddy”. He also reprised his role in the second series of Bob Servant.

In 2015, he starred in The Slap, an American adaptation of the Australian series based on Christos Tsiolka’s novel, as Manolis Apostolou, the father of the main character played by Peter Sarsgaard. He appeared in the sci-fi comedy Pixels as a military heavyweight starring alongside Adam Sandler, and in the Canadian revisionist western film Forsaken as a local gang leader. He also starred in the short film Killing Thyme as a grumpy old man with a squandered allotment and a death wish.

In 2016, he starred in the British-Hungarian comedy The Carer as Sir Michael Gifford, an aging Shakespearian actor, and in BBC’s historical drama series adaptation of Leo Tolstoy’s novel War & Peace as General Mikhail Kutuzov. He was nominated at the BAFTA Scotland Awards for Best Actor for his portrayal in the former. He also received a Career Achievement Award at the Stony Brook Film Festival for the same role. He appeared in season 3 of the horror drama series Penny Dreadful as Jared Talbot, a ruthless, powerful American rancher and the estranged father of Josh Hartnett’s character. He also appeared in the sci-fi thriller Morgan as Jim Bryce, and starred alongside Emile Hirsch in The Autopsy of Jane Doe as Tommy. In the first series of the Italian-British historical drama series Medici, he portrayed Bernardo Guadagni, an officer of the Signoria.

In 2017, he appeared as Marlon Brando in Urban Myths, a biographical comedy-drama series in which each episode features a story about popular culture icons. In June, Cox starred in the critically acclaimed historical war drama Churchill, playing the title role as Winston Churchill.

2018-present: Succession.

In April 2018, Cox reprised his role of Captain John O’Hagen in Super Troopers 2. Early drafts of the script excluded Cox’s character from the movie, with reservations on whether Cox would want to return or not for the sequel. It was later announced he would return, Cox himself joking that it was on the condition that he receive a “big action scene with rockets and explosions”. In May, he starred in The Etruscan Smile as Rory MacNeil, a dying man who reunites with his estranged son. He starred in the first season of Succession, HBO’s satirical drama which premiered in June to positive reviews, as Logan Roy, the patriarch of the dysfunctional Roy family and the billionaire founder of the global media and entertainment conglomerate Waystar RoyCo. In November, he starred as Henry in James Franco’s drama The Pretenders.

In June 2019, he played William “Bill” Erwin in Strange But True, a thriller adaptation of John Searles’ novel. In August, he starred as Shane in the romantic comedy Remember Me. In the same month, the second series of Successions premiered in which Cox reprised his role, earning him the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Drama and a nomination for the Emmy Award for Best Lead Actor in a Drama Series. The series garnered critical acclaim receiving numerous awards and nominations, winning the British Academy Television Award for Best International Programme, the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Drama, and the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series. In the same year, he played Father Reilly in the comedy-drama The Last Right.

In 2020, Cox starred as Gilles in the American neo-noir thriller Last Moment of Clarity In The Bay of Silence, he played Milton Hunter, a powerful art dealer and stepfather to a celebrated artist. In 2021, he played Paul Rivers in the horror film Separation.

Upcoming projects.

In November 2020, it was announced that Cox is joining the cast of the “audio movie series” Unsinkable told in 11 20-minute episodes following the story of a WW2 freight tanker whose crew re-boards after being hit by gunfire to try to save the burning ship. He will also appear in the revenge thriller The Jesuit set in the backdrop of the Mexican underworld, in Wittgenstein’s Poker as Bertrand Russell, and in Skelly. In July 2021, it was announced that Cox would join the cast of the family drama Prisoner’s Daughter which tells the story of an ex-con trying to reconnect with his daughter and grandson. In August, he signed on to executive produce Mending the Line and star as a Vietnam veteran who teaches a young injured soldier how to fly fish hoping it would help him cope with his physical and emotional trauma. In September, it was announced that he will star in the political thriller The Independent which centers on a young journalist who teams up with her idol (Cox) to uncover a major conspiracy.

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My Poetry. If Sadness was a name?

If sadness was a name then it would be mine
tears flow from my eyes all the time
my sorrow is deep as I sit here and weep
if sadness was a name then it would be mine.
If the clouds fell suddenly from the sky
there would be nothing stopping me to fly
I would come home to you
and then wouldn't be blue
if sadness was a name then it would be mine.


Sadness is my friend
on your life I do depend
I need you by my side
like the shore needs the tide
if sadness was a name it would be mine!

If heaven closed it's doors I'd give you a key
to be closer to heaven and me
angels would watch out for you
guided by love through and through
if sadness was a name then it would be mine.

If together we are to be then that’s fine
holding hands in the sunlight your mine
pulling at the grass with my bonnie lass
if sadness was a name then it would be mine.


 Sadness is my friend
on your life I do depend
I need you by my side
like the shore needs the tide
if sadness was a name it would be mine!

If the dawning of a day would never appear
I wouldn't care as long as you are here
I want you by my side to be my loving bride.
if sadness was a name then it would be mine.

If the sun eclipsed today the moon would show
but despite this or anything else we would grow
our love would be one we would still have fun
if sadness was a name it would be mine.


Sadness is my friend
on your life I do depend
I need you by my side
like the shore needs the tide
if sadness was a name it would be mine!

repeat and fade :)

Sadness is my friend
on your life I do depend
I need you by my side
like the shore needs the tide
if sadness was a name it would be mine!

My first attempt at a song many Years ago lol.

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Infamous Scots. John Browning.

John Browning (29 November 1888 – 14 November 1964) was a Scottish footballer who played for Celtic, winning four league titles with the club. He is also remembered for his bribery charges in the early part of the 20th century.


Browning played for local clubs Glasgow PerthshireBonhill HibsVale of Leven, and Dumbarton Harp before arriving at Parkhead in 1911. He was loaned back to his two previous teams during his first year at the club.

He made his league debut for Celtic in a 1–0 victory over Third Lanark at Cathkin Park on 2 November 1912. He was a winger who played with a straightforward, forceful attacking flair which led to plenty of goals. In seven years with Celtic he managed to score a goal every three games, including 15 from 38 league matches during the 1914–15 season. He won four Scottish League titles in consecutive years, from 1914 to 1917 (the league continued during World War I).

He moved to Chelsea in June 1919 where he made just five league appearances, before signing for Vale of Leven in June 1920, and then Dumbarton in September 1920; in 1922 he went back to Vale of Leven again (the club now having re-joined the SFL) for two more years.


On 28 February 1914, Browning made his first and only appearance for Scotland, in a goalless draw against Wales at Celtic Park. He represented the Scottish League XI twice, again in 1914 and was also selected to play for the Glasgow FA against Sheffield in the same year.

Personal life.

In 1924, he and Archie Kyle, a former Rangers player, were found guilty of attempting to bribe Bo’ness player Peter Brown in a public house in Glasgow’s Dundas Street: both men were sentenced to 60 days’ hard labour.

Browning’s son of the same name was also a footballer; in addition to playing for Liverpool he also appeared for Dumbarton.

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Scottish Football teams. Celtic FC.

The Celtic Football Club, commonly known as Celtic (/ˈsɛltɪk/), is a Scottish professional football club based in Glasgow, which plays in the Scottish Premiership. The club was founded in 1887 with the purpose of alleviating poverty in the immigrant Irish population in the East End of Glasgow. They played their first match in May 1888, a friendly match against Rangers which Celtic won 5–2. Celtic established themselves within Scottish football, winning six successive league titles during the first decade of the 20th century. The club enjoyed their greatest successes during the 1960s and 70s under Jock Stein, when they won nine consecutive league titles and the 1967 European Cup. Celtic have played in green and white throughout their history, adopting hoops in 1903, which have been used ever since.

Celtic are one of only five clubs in the world to have won over 100 trophies in their history. The club has won the Scottish league championship 52 times, most recently in 2021–22, the Scottish Cup 40 times and the Scottish League Cup 20 times. The club’s greatest season was 1966–67, when Celtic became the first British team to win the European Cup, also winning the Scottish league championship, the Scottish Cup, the League Cup and the Glasgow Cup. Celtic also reached the 1970 European Cup Final and the 2003 UEFA Cup Final, losing in both.

Celtic have a long-standing fierce rivalry with Rangers, and the clubs are known as the Old Firm, seen by some as the world’s biggest football derby. The club’s fanbase was estimated in 2003 as being around nine million worldwide, and there are more than 160 Celtic supporters clubs in over 20 countries. An estimated 80,000 fans travelled to Seville for the 2003 UEFA Cup Final, and their “extraordinarily loyal and sporting behaviour” in spite of defeat earned the club Fair Play awards from FIFA and UEFA.


Main articles: History of Celtic F.C. (1887–1994) and (1994–present)

Brother Walfrid, founder of Celtic FC.

Celtic Football Club was formally constituted at a meeting in St. Mary’s church hall in East Rose Street (now Forbes Street), Calton, Glasgow, by Irish Marist Brother Walfrid on 6 November 1887, with the purpose of alleviating poverty in the East End of Glasgow by raising money for the charity Walfrid had instituted, the Poor Children’s Dinner Table. Walfrid’s move to establish the club as a means of fund-raising was largely inspired by the example of Hibernian, which was formed out of the immigrant Irish population a few years earlier in Edinburgh. Walfrid’s own suggestion of the name Celtic (pronounced Seltik) was intended to reflect the club’s Irish and Scottish roots and was adopted at the same meeting. The club has the official nickname, The Bhoys. However, according to the Celtic press office, the newly established club was known to many as “the bold boys”. A postcard from the early 20th century that pictured the team and read “The Bould Bhoys” is the first known example of the unique spelling. The extra h imitates the spelling system of Gaelic, wherein the letter b is often accompanied by the letter h.

A team photo from the early days of the club (around 1889), before the adoption of the hooped jerseys.

On 28 May 1888, Celtic played their first official match against Rangers and won 5–2 in what was described as a “friendly encounter”. Neil McCallum scored Celtic’s first goal. Celtic’s first kit consisted of a white shirt with a green collar, black shorts, and emerald green socks. The original club crest was a simple green cross on a red oval background. In 1889 Celtic reached the final of the Scottish Cup in their first season taking part in the competition, but lost 2–1 to Third Lanark. Celtic reached the final again in 1892 and this time were victorious after defeating Queen’s Park 5–1, the club’s first major honour. Several months later the club moved to its new ground, Celtic Park, and in the following season won the Scottish League Championship for the first time. In 1895, Celtic set the League record for the highest home score when they beat Dundee 11–0.

In 1897, the club became a private limited company and Willie Maley was appointed as the first ‘secretary-manager‘. Between 1905 and 1910, Celtic won the Scottish League Championship six times in a row. They also won the Scottish Cup in both 1907 and 1908, the first times a Scottish club had ever won the double.During World War I, Celtic won the league four times in a row, including 62 matches unbeaten between November 1915 and April 1917. The mid-1920s saw the emergence of Jimmy McGrory as one of the most prolific goalscorers in British football history; over a sixteen-year playing career, he scored 550 goals in 547 games (including 16 goals for Clydebank during a season on loan in 1923–24), a British goal-scoring record to this day. In January 1940, Willie Maley’s retirement was announced. He was 71 years old and had served the club in varying roles for nearly 52 years, initially as a player and then as secretary-manager. Jimmy McStay became manager of the club in February 1940. He spent over five years in this role, although due to the Second World War no official competitive league football took place during this time. The Scottish Football League and Scottish Cup were suspended and in their place regional league competitions were set up. Celtic did not do particularly well during the war years, but did win the Victory in Europe Cup held in May 1945 as a one-off football match to celebrate Victory in Europe Day.

Ex-player and captain Jimmy McGrory took over as manager in 1945. Under McGrory, Celtic defeated ArsenalManchester United and Hibernian to win the Coronation Cup, a one-off tournament held in May 1953 to commemorate the coronation of Elizabeth II. He also led them to a League and Cup double in 1954. On 19 October 1957, Celtic defeated Rangers in the final of the Scottish League Cup at Hampden Park in Glasgow, retaining the trophy they had won for the first time the previous year; the 7–1 scoreline remains a record win in a British domestic cup final. The years that followed, however, saw Celtic struggle and the club won no more trophies under McGrory.

Jock Stein in an Amsterdam hotel, ahead of a European Cup quarter-final against AFC Ajax (1971)

Former Celtic captain Jock Stein succeeded McGrory in 1965. He won the Scottish Cup in his first few months at the club, and then led them to the League title the following season.

1967 was Celtic’s annus mirabilis. The club won every competition they entered: the Scottish League, the Scottish Cup, the Scottish League Cup, the Glasgow Cup, and the European Cup. Under the leadership of Stein, the club defeated Inter Milan 2–1 at the Estádio Nacional in Lisbon, on 25 May 1967 to become the first British team, and indeed the first from outside Spain, Portugal and Italy to win the competition. They remain the only Scottish team to have reached the final. The players that day, all of whom were born within 30 miles of Glasgow, subsequently became known as the “Lisbon Lions“. The following season Celtic lost to Racing Club of Argentina in the Intercontinental Cup.

Celtic reached the European Cup Final again in 1970, but were beaten 2–1 by Feyenoord at the San Siro in Milan. The club continued to dominate Scottish football in the early 1970s, and their Scottish Championship win in 1974 was their ninth consecutive league title, equalling the joint world record held at the time by MTK Budapest and CSKA Sofia.

Celtic enjoyed further domestic success in the 1980s, and in their Centenary season of 1987–88 won a Scottish Premier Division and Scottish Cup double.

The club endured a slump in the early 1990s, culminating in the Bank of Scotland informing directors on 3 March 1994 that it was calling in the receivers as a result of the club exceeding a £5 million overdraft. However, expatriate businessman Fergus McCann wrested control of the club, and ousted the family dynasties which had controlled Celtic since its foundation. According to media reports, McCann took over the club minutes before it was to be declared bankrupt. McCann reconstituted the club business as a public limited company – Celtic PLC – and oversaw the redevelopment of Celtic Park into a 60,832 all-seater stadium. In 1998 Celtic won the title again under Dutchman Wim Jansen and prevented Rangers from beating their nine-in-a-row record.

Martin O’Neill took charge of the club in June 2000. Under his leadership, Celtic won three SPL championships out of five (losing the others by very small margins) and in his first season in charge the club also won the domestic treble, making O’Neill only the second Celtic manager to do so after Jock Stein. In 2003, around 80,000 Celtic fans travelled to watch the club compete in the UEFA Cup Final in Seville. Celtic lost 3–2 to Porto after extra time, despite two goals from Henrik Larsson during normal time. The conduct of the thousands of travelling Celtic supporters received widespread praise from the people of Seville and the fans were awarded Fair Play Awards from both FIFA and UEFA “for their extraordinarily loyal and sporting behaviour”.

Gordon Strachan was announced as O’Neill’s replacement in June 2005 and after winning the SPL title in his first year in charge, he became only the third Celtic manager to win three titles in a row. He also guided Celtic to their first UEFA Champions League knockout stage in 2006–07 and repeated the feat in 2007–08 before departing the club in May 2009, after failing to win the SPL titleTony Mowbray took charge of the club in June 2009, and he was succeeded a year later by Neil Lennon. In November 2010, Celtic set an SPL record fo the biggest win in SPL history, defeating Aberdeen 9–0 at Celtic Park.

Celtic celebrated their 125th anniversary in November 2012, the same week as a Champions League match against Barcelona. They won 2–1 on the night to complete a memorable week, and eventually qualified from the group stages for the round of 16. Celtic finished the season with the SPL and Scottish Cup double. The club clinched their third consecutive league title in March 2014, with goalkeeper Fraser Forster setting a new record during the campaign of 1,256 minutes without conceding a goal in a league match. At the end of the season, manager Neil Lennon announced his departure from the club after four years in the role.

Norwegian Ronny Deila was appointed manager of Celtic on 6 June 2014. He went on to lead the team to two consecutive league titles and a League Cup, but the team’s performances in European competition were poor. After being eliminated from the Scottish Cup by Rangers in April 2016, Deila announced he would leave the club at the end of the season.

On 20 May 2016, Brendan Rodgers was announced as Deila’s successor. His first season saw the team go on a long unbeaten run in domestic competitions, during which time the club won their 100th major trophy, defeating Aberdeen 3–0 in the League Cup Final in November 2016. Celtic also clinched their sixth successive league title in April 2017 with a record eight league games to spare, and eventually finished with a record 106 points, becoming the first Scottish side to complete a top-flight league season undefeated since Rangers in 1899. Celtic clinched their fourth treble by defeating Aberdeen 2–1 in the 2017 Scottish Cup Final, the result of which saw the club go through the entire domestic season unbeaten.

Celtic continued their unbeaten domestic run into the following season, eventually extending it to 69 games, surpassing their own 100-year-old British record of 62 games, before finally losing to Hearts in November 2017. Celtic retained the League Cup that same month by defeating Motherwell in the final, and went on to clinch their seventh consecutive league title in April 2018. They went on to defeat Motherwell again in the 2018 Scottish Cup Final to clinch a second consecutive domestic treble (the “double treble”), the first club in Scotland to do so. Rodgers left the club midway through following season to join Leicester City; Neil Lennon returned as caretaker manager for the rest of the season and helped Celtic secure an unprecedented third consecutive domestic treble (the “treble treble”), defeating Hearts 2–1 in the 2019 Scottish Cup Final. Later that month, he was confirmed as the club’s new manager.

In December 2019, Lennon led Celtic to a 1–0 win over Rangers in the 2019 Scottish League Cup Final, the club’s tenth consecutive domestic trophy. By March 2020, Celtic were 13 points ahead in the league when professional football in Scotland was suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. they were confirmed as champions in May 2020 following a SPFL board meeting where it was agreed that completing the full league campaign was infeasible. The completion of the 2019–20 Scottish Cup was delayed, with the semi-finals and final – between Celtic and Hearts as in the previous year – not taking place until late autumn/winter of 2020. Celtic won on penalty-kicks after the sides tied at 3–3 after extra time, clinching a fourth successive treble. However, Celtic struggled throughout the 2020–21 season with poor performances in Europe, knocked out of the League Cup by Ross County, and by February 2021 were trailing 18 points behind Rangers in the league – effectively ending their hopes of winning “ten in a row” league titles. Lennon resigned on 24 February 2021, with assistant manager John Kennedy taking interim charge of the team. In the closing weeks of the season, Celtic were knocked out of the Scottish Cup by Rangers which condemned them to their first trophy-less season since 2010, and finished the league campaign 25 points behind their Glasgow rivals.

Crest and colours

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Celtic F.C. kits.

The club crest adopted on the team’s football shirts in 1977, based on a badge originating from the 1930s.

the special crest that was adopted in seasons 1987–88 & 1988–89 to celebrate the club’s centenary.

Special commemorative crest used in season 2017–18 to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the club’s European Cup Final win in 1967.

For most of Celtic’s history their home strip has featured green and white horizontal hoops, but their original strip consisted of a white top with black shorts and black and green hooped socks. The top also featured the Marist Brothers’ badge on the right hand side, consisting of a green Celtic cross inside a red circle. In 1889, the club changed to a green and white vertically striped top and for the next fourteen years this remained unchanged although the colour of the shorts alternated between white and black several times over this period. The top did not feature a crest.

In 1903, Celtic adopted their now famous green and white hooped tops. The new design was worn for the first time on 15 August 1903 in a match against Partick Thistle. Black socks continued to be worn until the early 1930s, at which point the team switched to green socks. Plain white socks came into use in the mid 1960s, and white has been the predominant colour worn since then.

18881889–19031903–19321932–19651965 onwards

The club began using a badge in the 1930s, featuring a four leaf clover logo surrounded by the club’s formal title, “The Celtic Football and Athletic Coy. Ltd”. However, it was not until 1977 that Celtic finally adopted the club crest on their shirts. The outer segment was reversed out, with white lettering on a green background on the team shirts. The text around the clover logo on the shirts was also shortened from the official club crest to “The Celtic Football Club”. For their centenary year in 1988, a commemorative crest was worn, featuring the Celtic cross that appeared on their first shirts. The 1977 version was reinstated for season 1989–90.

From 1945 onwards numbered shirts slowly came into use throughout Scotland, before becoming compulsory in 1960. By this time Celtic were the last club in Britain to adopt the use of numbers on the team strip to identify players. The traditionalist and idealistic Celtic chairman, Robert Kelly, baulked at the prospect of the famous green and white hoops being disfigured, and as such Celtic wore their numbers on the players’ shorts. This unusual tradition survived until 1994, although numbered shirts were worn in European competition from 1975 onwards. Celtic’s tradition of wearing numbers on their shorts rather than on the back of their shirts was brought to an end when the Scottish Football League instructed Celtic to wear numbers on their shirts from the start of the 1994–95 season. Celtic responded by adding numbers to the top of their sleeves, however within a few weeks the football authorities ordered the club to attach them to the back of their shirts, where they appeared on a large white patch, breaking up the green and white hoops.

In 1984 Celtic took up shirt sponsorship for the first time, with Fife-based double glazing firm CR Smith having their logo emblazoned on the front of the team jersey. In season 1991–92, Celtic switched to Glasgow-based car sales company Peoples as sponsors. The club failed to secure a shirt sponsor for season 1992–93, and for the first time since the early 1980s Celtic took to the field in ‘unblemished’ hoops. Despite the loss of marketing revenue, sales of the new unsponsored replica top increased dramatically. Celtic regained shirt sponsorship for season 1993–94, with CR Smith returning as shirt sponsors in a four-year deal.

In 2005 the club severed their connection with Umbro, suppliers of their kits since the 1960s and entered into a contract with Nike. To mark the 40th anniversary of their European Cup win, a special crest was introduced for the 2007–08 season. The star that represents this triumph was retained when the usual crest was reinstated the following season. In 2012, a retro style kit was designed by Nike that included narrower hoops to mark the club’s 125th anniversary. A special crest was introduced with a Celtic knot design embroidered round the traditional badge. A third-choice strip based on the first strip from 1888 was also adopted for the season.

In March 2015, Celtic agreed a new kit deal worth £30 million with Boston-based sportswear manufacturer New Balance to replace Nike from the start of the 2015–16 season.

All of the kits for the 2017–18 season paid tribute to the Lisbon Lions, with the kits having a line on each side to represent the handles of the European Cup. The kits also included a commemorative crest, designed specifically for the season. The regular crest was reinstated the following season, although the away strip featured a Celtic cross once again in reference to the club’s heritage.

In March 2020, Celtic announced a new five-year partnership with Adidas starting on 1 July 2020, in a deal believed to be the biggest kit sponsorship ever in Scottish sport.

PeriodKit manufacturerShirt sponsor (front)Shirt sponsor (back)
1984–1991CR Smith
1991–1992Peoples Ford
1993–1997CR Smith
2015–2016New Balance


Main article: Celtic Park

Statue of Jock Stein outside Celtic Park.

Celtic’s stadium is Celtic Park, which is in the Parkhead area of Glasgow. Celtic Park, an all-seater stadium with a capacity of 60,411, is the largest football stadium in Scotland and the eighth-largest stadium in the United Kingdom, after MurrayfieldOld TraffordTwickenhamWembley, the London StadiumTottenham Hotspur Stadium and the Millennium Stadium. It is commonly known as Parkhead or Paradise.

Celtic opened the original Celtic Park in the Parkhead area in 1888. The club moved to a different site in 1892, however, when the rental charge was greatly increased. The new site was developed into an oval shaped stadium, with vast terracing sections. The record attendance of 83,500 was set by an Old Firm derby on 1 January 1938. The terraces were covered and floodlights were installed between 1957 and 1971. The Taylor Report mandated that all major clubs should have an all-seated stadium by August 1994. Celtic was in a bad financial position in the early 1990s and no major work was carried out until Fergus McCann took control of the club in March 1994. He carried out a plan to demolish the old terraces and develop a new stadium in a phased rebuild, which was completed in August 1998. During this development, Celtic spent the 1994–95 season playing at the national stadium Hampden Park, costing the club £500,000 in rent. The total cost of the new stadium on its completion was £40 million.

Celtic Park has been used as a venue for Scotland internationals and Cup Finals, particularly when Hampden Park has been unavailable. Before the First World War, Celtic Park hosted various other sporting events, including composite rules shinty-hurling, track and field and the 1897 Track Cycling World Championships. Open-air masses, and First World War recruitment drives have also been held there. In more recent years, Celtic Park has hosted the Opening Ceremonies of the 2014 Commonwealth Games, the 2005 Special Olympics National Games and the 1990 Special Olympics European Games. Celtic Park has occasionally been used for concerts, including performances by The Who and U2.

In July 2016, Celtic Park became the first British football stadium to have a “rail seating” (safe standing) area in the ground. Rail seating is particularly common in Germany‘s Bundesliga, most notably at Borussia Dortmund‘s Westfalenstadion, a ground with a reputation on par with Celtic Park for its intensity and atmosphere.

In June 2018, Celtic announced a series of stadium improvements that would be implemented before the 2018–19 season. These include the installation of new LED floodlights and a new entertainment system, a stadium-wide PA system and a new hybrid playing surface.

A panoramic view of Celtic Park


Main article: Celtic F.C. supporters

In 2003 Celtic were estimated to have a fan base of nine million people, including one million in the US and Canada. There are over 160 Celtic Supporters Clubs in over 20 countries around the world.

An estimated 80,000 Celtic supporters, many without match tickets, travelled to Seville in Spain for the UEFA Cup Final in May 2003. The club’s fans subsequently received awards from UEFA and FIFA for their behaviour at the match.

Celtic has the highest average home attendance of any Scottish club. They also had the 12th highest average league attendance out of all the football clubs in Europe in 2011. A study of stadium attendance figures from 2013 to 2018 by the CIES Football Observatory ranked Celtic at 16th in the world during that period, and their proportion of the distribution of spectators in Scotland at 36.5%, the highest of any club in the leagues examined.

In October 2013, French football magazine So Foot  published a list of whom they considered the ‘best’ football supporters in the world. Celtic fans were placed third, the only British supporters on the list, with the magazine highlighting their rendition of You’ll Never Walk Alone before the start of European ties at Celtic Park.

On 23 October 2017, Celtic fans were awarded with the FIFA Fan Award for their tifo commemorating the 50th anniversary of the club’s European cup win. The award “celebrates the best fan moment of November 2016 to August 2017”.

The Old Firm and sectarianism

Main articles: Old Firm and Sectarianism in Glasgow

Celtic’s traditional rivals are Rangers; collectively, the two clubs are known as the Old Firm and seen by some as the world’s biggest football derby. The two have dominated Scottish football’s history; between them, they have won the Scottish league championship 106 times (as of late 2021) since its inception in 1890 – all other clubs combined have won 19 championships. The two clubs are also by far the most supported in Scotland, with Celtic having the sixth highest home attendance in the UK during season 2014–15. Celtic have a historic association with the people of Ireland and Scots of Irish descent, both of whom are mainly Roman Catholic. Traditionally fans of rivals Rangers came from Scottish or Northern Irish Protestant backgrounds and support Unionism in Ireland.

The clubs have attracted the support of opposing factions in the Troubles in Northern Ireland. Some supporters use songs, chants and banners at matches to abuse or show support for the Protestant or Catholic religions and proclaim support for Northern Irish paramilitary groups such as the IRA and UVF.

There have been over 400 Old Firm matches played. The games have been described as having an “atmosphere of hatred, religious tension and intimidation which continues to lead to violence in communities across Scotland.” The rivalry has fuelled many assaults and even deaths on Old Firm Derby days. Admissions to hospital emergency rooms have been reported to increase ninefold over normal levels and in the period from 1996 to 2003, eight deaths in Glasgow were directly linked to Old Firm matches, and hundreds of assaults.

Both sets of fans fought on the pitch after Celtic’s victory in the 1980 Scottish Cup Final at Hampden Park. There was serious fan disorder during an Old Firm match played in May 1999 at Celtic Park; missiles were thrown by Celtic fans, including one which struck referee Hugh Dallas, who needed medical treatment and a small number of fans invaded the pitch.

Celtic have taken measures to reduce sectarianism. In 1996, the club launched its Bhoys Against Bigotry campaign, later followed by Youth Against Bigotry to “educate the young on having … respect for all aspects of the community – all races, all colours, all creeds”.

Irish republicanism

Some groups of Celtic fans have expressed their support for Irish republicanism and the Irish Republican Army by singing or chanting about them at matches.

In 2008 and 2010, there were protests by groups of fans over the team wearing the poppy for Remembrance Day, as the symbol is offensive to many in Ireland. Celtic expressed disapproval of these protests, saying they were damaging to the image of the club and its fans, and pledged to ban those involved. In 2011, UEFA and the Scottish Premier League investigated the club over pro-IRA chants by fans at different games. UEFA fined Celtic £12,700, while the SPL took no action, as the club had taken all reasonable action to prevent the chants.

Celtic media

The Celtic View

In 1965, Celtic began publishing its own newspaper, The Celtic View, now the oldest club magazine in football. It was the brainchild of future chairman Jack McGinn, who at the time was working in the circulation department of Beaverbrook Newspapers. McGinn himself edited the paper for the first few years, with circulation initially reaching around 26,000 copies. By 2020, it was a 72-page glossy magazine with over 6,000 weekly readers, and the top selling club magazine in the United Kingdom. In the spring of 2020, the magazine saw a temporary cease of production due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. However, in August 2021, Celtic announced the restart of the production activities for the magazine, which was turned into a 100-page, quarterly publication.

From 2002, Celtic’s Internet TV channel Channel67 (previously known as Celtic Replay) broadcast Celtic’s own content worldwide and offered live match coverage to subscribers outside the UK. It also provided three online channels. In 2004, Celtic launched their own digital TV channel called Celtic TV, which was available in the UK through Setanta Sports on satellite and cable platforms. Due to the collapse of Setanta in the UK in June 2009, Celtic TV stopped broadcasting, although the club hoped to find a new broadcast partner. In 2011, Celtic TV was relaunched as an online service and replaced Channel 67.

Influence on other clubs

Due to Celtic’s large following, several clubs have decided to emulate or have been inspired by Celtic. As the club has a large following, especially in Northern Ireland, several clubs have been founded there by local Celtic fans. The most notable and successful was Belfast Celtic, formed in 1891 simply as Celtic. Upon incorporation as a limited company in 1901, however, the club adopted the name “Belfast Celtic”, the title “Celtic Football Club Ltd” already being registered by the Glasgow club. Their home from the same year was Celtic Park on Donegall Road in west Belfast, known to the fans as Paradise. It was one of the most successful teams in Ireland until it withdrew from the Irish League in 1949. Donegal Celtic, currently playing in the NIFL Premier Intermediate League, was established in 1970, with the Celtic part being taken on due to the massive local following for Scotland’s Celtic and formerly Belfast Celtic. They are nicknamed The Wee Hoops and play at Donegal Celtic Park on Suffolk Road in Belfast. A club by the name of Lurgan Celtic was originally formed in 1903, with the obvious slant of aiming towards the Roman Catholic community of the town, adopting the name and colours of the Glaswegian Celtic. The County Armagh club currently plays in the NIFL Championship. In the Republic of Ireland, both Tuam Celtic A.F.C. and Castlebar Celtic F.C. play at grounds called Celtic Park.

Throughout Scotland and England, other clubs have been named after and adopted Celtic’s kit. These include the now defunct Scottish club Blantyre Celtic F.C.; Irish club Listowel Celtic F.C.; and English lower-league clubs Cleator Moor Celtic F.C., which was founded in 1908–09 by Irish immigrants employed in the local iron ore mines, Celtic Nation F.C. (now defunct) and West Allotment Celtic F.C Somerset club Yeovil Town F.C., who traditionally wore an all-green shirt, modified their uniform to emulate Celtic’s, inspired by the Scottish club’s 2003 UEFA Cup run.

Outside the British Isles, South African club Bloemfontein Celtic F.C., one of the most popular club in the country with a large fan base in the Free State, is also named after Celtic F.C. Founded in 1969 as Mangaung United, in 1984, the then owner Molemela took over the club and changed the name to Bloemfontein Celtic. Based in Bloemfontein, they play in the Premier Soccer League. In the United States of America, Hurricanes F.C. of Houston, Texas rebranded as Celtic FC America in 2019 and play in the Texas Premier Soccer League.

Celtic and charity

Celtic was initially founded to raise money for the poor in the East End of Glasgow and the club still retain strong charitable traditions today. In 1995 the Celtic Charity Fund was formed with the aim of “revitalising Celtic’s charitable traditions” and by September 2013 had raised over £5 million. The Charity Fund has since then merged with the Celtic Foundation, forming the Celtic FC Foundation, and continues to raise money for local, national and international causes.

On 9 August 2011 Celtic held a testimonial match in honour of former player John Kennedy. Due to the humanitarian crisis in East Africa, the entire proceeds were donated to Oxfam. An estimated £300,000 was raised.

Celtic hold an annual charity fashion show at Celtic Park. In 2011 the main beneficiaries were Breast Cancer Care Scotland.

Yorkhill Hospital is another charity with whom Celtic are affiliated and in December 2011 the club donated £3000 to it. Chief Executive Peter Lawwell said that; “Celtic has always been much more than a football club and it is important that, at all times we play an important role in the wider community. The club is delighted to have enjoyed such a long and positive connection with Yorkhill Hospital.”

Ownership and finances

Private company

Celtic were formed in 1887, and in 1897 the club became a Private Limited Company with a nominal share capital of 5000 shares at £1 each. The following year a further share issue of 5000 £1 shares was created to raise more capital. The largest number of shares held were by businessmen from the East End of Glasgow, notably James Grant, an Irish publican and engineer, James Kelly, one of the club’s original players turned publican, and John Glass, a builder and driving force in the early years of the club. His shares, upon his death in 1906, passed on to Thomas White. The Grant, Kelly and White families’ shareholdings dominated ownership of the club throughout the 20th century.

James Kelly was one of Celtic’s early directors and also briefly Chairman. His son Robert Kelly spent many years as Chairman, and further descendants Kevin Kelly and Michael Kelly went on to have prominent roles on the Celtic board.

The late 1940s saw Robert Kelly, son of James Kelly, become chairman of the club after having been a director since 1931. Desmond White also joined the board around this time, upon the death of his father Thomas White. By the 1950s, a significant number of shares in the club had passed to Neil and Felicia Grant, who lived in ToomebridgeCounty Antrim. These shares accounted for more than a sixth of the club’s total issue. Club chairman Robert Kelly’s own family share-holding was of a similar size, and he used his close relationship with the Toomebridge Grants to ensure his power base at Celtic was unchallengeable. When Neil Grant died in the early 1960s, his shareholding passed to his sister Felicia, leaving her as the largest share-holder in Celtic. This gave rise to the myth among Celtic supporters of the “old lady in Ireland” who supposedly had the ultimate say in the running of the club.

Celtic’s board of directors had a reputation of being miserly and authoritarian. In particular they were known for frequently selling their top players and not paying their staff enough; they were also seen as lacking ambition, which caused friction with several managers. Jimmy McGrory‘s tenure as manager is generally considered a period of underachievement, but with Chairman Robert Kelly’s domineering influence. many have questioned how much authority McGrory ever had in team selection. Even Jock Stein‘s time as manager ended on a sour note when he was offered a place on the Celtic board, but in a role involving ticket sales. Stein felt that this was demeaning, stating he was “a football man, not a ticket salesman”. He declined this offer and decided to stay in football management, joining Leeds United instead. Billy McNeill won a trophy in each of his five seasons as manager, but was still paid less than the managers of RangersAberdeen and Dundee United. He left the club in June 1983 after his request for a contract and pay rise was publicly rebuffed by the board. McNeill moved on to manage Manchester City, stating that to remain at Celtic would have been humiliating. McNeill’s successor, Davie Hay, also had his difficulties with the Celtic board. When trying to sign players in 1987 to strengthen his squad to compete with high-spending Rangers, the board refused to pay for them; chairman Jack McGinn was quoted as saying that if Hay wanted these players, “he will have to pay for them himself”.

By the end of the 1980s the Celtic board consisted of chairman McGinn and directors Kevin Kelly, Chris White, Tom Grant and Jimmy Farrell. Neither McGinn nor Farrell were members of the traditional family dynasties at Celtic. Farrell was a partner in the Shaughnessy law firm that had long-standing connections with Celtic, and was invited to become a director in 1964. McGinn had set up The Celtic View in the 1960s and later became the club’s commercial manager. He was given a seat on the board and became Chairman in 1986. In May 1990 the former Lord Provost of Glasgow, Michael Kelly, and property developer Brian Dempsey were invited to join the Celtic board. Dempsey did not last long however, as a dispute about a proposed relocation to Robroyston resulted in him being voted off the board five months later.

McCann takeover and transition to plc

Throughout the 1960s and 70s Celtic had been one of the strongest clubs in Europe. However, the directors failed to accompany the wave of economic development facing football in the 1980s, although the club continued to remain successful on the field, albeit limited to the domestic scene in Scotland. In 1989, the club’s annual budget was £6.4 million, about a third as much as Barcelona, with a debt of around 40% and on-field success deteriorating. In the early 1990s the situation began to worsen as playing success declined dramatically and the club slipped further into debt.

In 1993 fans began organising pressure groups to protest against the board, one of the most prominent being “Celts for Change”. They supported a takeover bid led by Canadian-based businessman Fergus McCann and former director Brian Dempsey. Football writer Jim Traynor described McCann’s attempt to buy the club as “good against evil”. Despite declining attendances and increasing unrest amongst supporters, the Kelly, White and Grant family groupings continued to guard their control of Celtic.

On 4 March 1994, McCann bought Celtic for £9 million, finally wresting control from the family dynasties that had run the club for almost 100 years. When he bought the club it was reported to be within 24 hours of entering receivership due to exceeding a £5 million overdraft with the Bank of Scotland. He turned Celtic into a public limited company through a share issue which raised over £14 million, the most successful share issue in British football history. He also oversaw the building of a new stadium, the 60,000 seater Celtic Park, which cost £40 million and at the time was Britain’s largest club stadium. This allowed Celtic to progress as a club because over £20 million was being raised each year from season ticket sales.

McCann had maintained that he would only be at Celtic for five years and in September 1999 he announced that his 50.3% stake in Celtic was for sale. McCann had wanted the ownership of Celtic to be spread as widely as possible and gave first preference to existing shareholders and season-ticket holders, to prevent a new consortium taking over the club. 14.4 million shares were sold by McCann at a value of 280 pence each. McCann made £40 million out of this, meaning he left Celtic with a £31 million profit. During his tenure, turnover at Celtic rose by 385% to £33.8m and operating profits rose from £282,000 to £6.7m McCann was often criticised during his time at Celtic and many people disagreed with him over building a stadium which they thought Celtic couldn’t fill, not investing enough in the squad and being overly focused on finance. However, McCann was responsible for the financial recovery of the club and for providing a very good platform for it to build on. After he left Celtic, the club were able to invest in players and achieved much success such as winning the treble in 2000–01 and reaching the 2003 UEFA Cup Final.

After McCann’s exit, Irish billionaire Dermot Desmond was left as the majority shareholder. He purchased 2.8 million of McCann’s shares to increase his stake in the club from 13% to 20%.

In 2005, Celtic issued a share offer designed to raise £15 million for the club; 50 million new shares were made available priced at 30p each. It was also revealed that majority shareholder Desmond would buy around £10 million worth of the shares. £10 million of the money raised was for building a new training centre and youth academy, expanding the club’s global scouting network and investing in coaching and player development programmes. The rest of the money was to be used to reduce debt. Building a youth academy was important for Celtic to surpass both Hearts and Rangers who had superior youth facilities at the time. The share issue was a success and Celtic had more applicants than shares available, The new Lennoxtown training centre was opened in October 2007.

Celtic have been ranked in the Deloitte Football Money League six times. This lists the top 20 football clubs in the world according to revenue. They were ranked between 2002 (2000–01 season), 2006 (2004–05 season) and 2008 (2006–07 season).

Celtic’s financial results for 2011 showed that the club’s debt had been reduced from £5.5 million to £500,000 and that a pre-tax profit of £100,000 had been achieved, compared with a loss of over £2 million the previous year. Turnover also decreased by 15% from £63 million to £52 million.

In May 2012, Celtic were rated 37th in Brand Finance’s annual valuation of the world’s biggest football clubs. Celtic’s brand was valued at $64 million (£40.7 million), $15 million more than the previous year. It was the first time a Scottish club had been ranked in the top 50. Matt Hannagan, Sports Brand Valuation Analyst at Brand Finance, said that Celtic were constrained by the amount of money they got from the SPL and that if they were in the Premiership then, due to their large fan base, they could be in the top 10 clubs in the world. Later that month David Low, the financial consultant who advised Fergus McCann on his takeover of Celtic in 1994, said that Celtic’s ‘enterprise value’ (how much it would cost to buy the club) was £52 million.

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